World Cocoa Foundation RESEARCH UPDATE: April-June 2013

Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT:  On February 22, 2013 President Obama announced a new public access policy for all federally funded research.  According to this policy, publications or final reports arising from all federally funded research must be made publically available within 12 months after peer-reviewed publication.  The policy, already in place at the National Institutes of Health, was extended to include other federal agencies that have research budgets of $100 million or more.  The text of the memo from the Office of Science and Technology Policy is available online by clicking here.  This public policy makes it possible to obtain publications authored by US Government scientists relating to cacao/cocoa research in a timely manner and without charge, and according to the Washington Post, February 23, 2013, “These policies will accelerate scientific breakthroughs and innovation, promote entrepreneurship, and enhance economic growth and job creation.”

CACAO/COCOA PUBLICATIONS NEW TO THE WCF VIRTUAL LIBRARY:

**Abimbola Longe, O., Oyekale, A.S. Assessment of climate change vulnerability and adaptation among smallholder cocoa farmers in Osun state, Nigeria. Life Science Journal, 10 (2), pp. 757-763, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityClimate264KB)

**Adjaloo, M.K.; Oduro, W. Insect assemblage and the pollination system of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L). Journal Applied Biosciences, vol. 62, p. 4582-4594, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyPollination559KB)

**Aikpokpodion, P.E.; Lajide, L.; Aiyesanmi, A.F.  In situ remediation activities of rock phosphate in heavy-metal contaminated cocoa plantation soil in Owena, South Western, Nigeria. Global Journal Environmental Research, vol. 6 (2), p. 51-57, 2012. (Diseases&PestsHeavyMetalRemediation186KB)

**Akanni, K.A.; Dada, A.O. Analysis of labour-use patterns among small-holder cocoa farmers in south western Nigeria. Journal Agricultural Science Technology, vol. 2 (1), p. 107-113, 2012. (Socio-EconomicSmallHolderUsePatterns122KB)

**Ameyaw, G.A.; Dzahini-Obiatey, H.; Domfeh, O.; Wetten, A.; Allainguillaume, J. Investigation on Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) pollen transmission through cross-pollination. Plant Pathology, Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2012.02640.x, 2012. (Diseases&PestsSwollenShootTransmission139KB)

**Aneani, F.; Anchirinah, V.M.; Owusu-Ansah, F.; Asamoah, M.  Adoption of some cocoa production technologies by cocoa farmers in Ghana. Sustainable Agriculture Research, vol. 1 (1), p. 103-117, 2012. ( Socio-EconomicFarmerTechnology436KB)

**Ayenor, G.K., Röling, N.G., Padi, B., Van Huis, A., Obeng-Ofori, D., Atengdem, P.B. Converging farmers’ and scientists’ perspectives on researchable constraints on organic cocoa production in Ghana: Results of a diagnostic study. NJAS – Wageningen Journal Life Sciences, vol. 52 (3-4), p. 261-284, 2004. (Socio-EconomicOrganic135KB)

**Balogun, O.L.; Obi-Egbedi, O.  Resource use efficiency and productivity of cocoa farmers in Idanre LGA of Ondo state, Nigeria. American Journal Social Management Sciences, vol. 3 (2), p. 60-67, 2012. (Socio-EconomicFarmerProductivity226KB)

**Berlan, A. Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Anthropological Perspective on Child Labour in Cocoa Production in Ghana. Manchester Papers in Political Economy, University of Manchester, ISSN 1756-0837, 2011. (Socio-EconomicLabor226KB)

**Bitzer, V.  Partnering for change in chains: The capacity of partnerships to promote sustainable change in global agrifood chains. International Food  Agribusiness Management Review,  vol. 15, p. 13-38, 2012. (Socio-EconomicLabor226KB)

**Cordero-Herrera, I., Martín, M.A., Bravo, L., Goya, L., Ramos, S.  Cocoa flavonoids improve insulin signalling and modulate glucose production via AKT and AMPK in HepG2 cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200500, 2013. [Epub ahead of print]. (HumanNutritionInsulin876KB)

**Coulibaly, A.; Biego, G.H.; Dembele, A.; Bohoussou, K.M.; Toure, A. Cocoa beans and cocoa derivatives from Cote-D’Ivoire: investigating ochratoxin A level and assessing dietary intake adults. Sustainable Agric. Res., vol. 2 (1), p. 173-180, 2013. (PostHarvestOchratoxin148KB)

**Da Hora Junior, B.T.; Lopes, M.A.; Dias, C.V.; Cascardo, J.C.D.M.; Gesteira, A.D.S.; Micheli, F.; Poloni, J.D.F.; Bonatto, D.; Gramacho, K.P.; Schuster, I.; Sabau, X.; Mauro, S.M.Z.D.  Transcriptomics and systems biology analysis in identification of specific pathways involved in cacao resistance and susceptibility to witches’ broom disease. Molecular Biosystems, vol. 8 (5), p. 1507-1519, 2012. (Diseases&PestsWitchesBroomResistance3.55MB)

**Dormon, E.N.A., Van Huis, A., Leeuwis, C., Obeng-Ofori, D., Sakyi-Dawson, O. Causes of low productivity of cocoa in Ghana: Farmers’ perspectives and insights from research and the socio-political establishment. NJAS – Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 52 (3-4), pp. 237-259, 2004. (Socio-EconomicProductivity1.45MB)

**Ebewore, S.O., Egho, E.O., Enujeke, E.C. Effect of Farmer Field School Training on the Management of Cocoa Marids (Saghbergella singularis) by Famers in Edo State Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 5 (1), p. 6-10, 2013. (Diseases&PestsMiridsFarmerFieldSchools80KB)

**Franco, G.B., Betim, L.S., Marques, E.A.G., Gomes, R.L., Da Silva Chagas, C. Relationship water quality and environmental fragility of Almada River Watershed, Bahia, Brazil [Relação qualidade da água e fragilidade ambiental da Bacia do Rio Almada, Bahia]. Revista Brasileira de Geociencias, 42 (SUPPL.1), pp. 114-127, 2012. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestry3.39MB)

**Grassi, D., Necozione, S., Lippi, C., Croce, G., Valeri, L., Pasqualetti, P., Desideri, G., Blumberg, J.B., Ferri, C. Cocoa Reduces Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Hypertensives. Hypertension, vol. 46, p., 398-405, 2005. (HumanNutritionBloodPressure553KB)

**Latif, R. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: A review. Netherlands Journal of Medicine, 71 (2), pp. 63-68, 2013. (HumanNutritionReview144KB)

**Lippi, D. Chocolate in history: food, medicine, medi-food. Nutrients, vol. 5, p. 1573-1584, 2013. (Socio-EconomicHistory372KB)

**Mabbett, T. Quality control for stored coffee and cocoa. International Pest Control, 55 (2), pp. 91-94, 2013. (PostHarvestQuality1.66MB)

**Martorell, P., Bataller, E., Llopis, S., Gonzalez, N., Álvarez, B., Montón, F., Ortiz, P., Ramón, D., Genovés, S. A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and β-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity. PLoS ONE, 8 (5), art. no. e63283, 2013. (HumanNutritionPolypeptide686KB)

**Mbeuyo, M., Donfagsiteli Tchinda, N., Youmbi, E., Mbita Messi, H.J.C., Amougou, A.  Performance of Dacryodes edulis mycorrhized layers under different cropping conditions in Makenene, Cameroon. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37 (3), pp. 335-343, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryCacaoBased6.83MB)

**Méndez-Albores, A., Campos-Aguilar, A.Z., Moreno-Martínez, E., Vázquez-Durán, A. Physical and chemical degradation of B-aflatoxins during the roasting and dutching of cocoa liquor. Journal Agricultural Science Technology, vol. 15 (3), p. 557-567, 2013. (PostharvestProcessingAflatoxins175KB)

**Motamayor, J.C., Mockaitis, K., Schmutz, J., Haiminen, N., Livingstone, D., Cornejo, O., Findley, S.D., Zheng, P., Utro, F., Royaert, S., Saski, C., Jenkins, J., Podicheti, R., Zhao, M., Scheffler, B.E., Stack, J.C., Feltus, F.A., Mustiga, G.M., Amores, F., Phillips, W., Marelli, J.P., May, G.D., Shapiro, H., Ma, J., Bustamante, C.D., Schnell, R.J., Main, D., Gilbert, D., Parida, L., Kuhn, D.N.  The genome sequence of the most widely cultivated cacao type and its use to identify candidate genes regulating pod color. Genome Biology, pp. R53. Article in Press, 2013.  (GenomicsandPhysiologyDNA2.8MB)

**Mushtaq, M., Wani, S.M. Polyphenols and human health- A review. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 4 (2), pp. B338-B360, 2013. (HumanNutritionPolyphenolsReview344KB)

**Nana Yaw, C. F., Asuming-Brempong, S., Mabe, F.N.  Analysis of cocoa-based agricultural knowledge and information systems in the eastern region of Ghana. Russian J. Agric. Socio-Economic Sci. ISSN/EISSN: 22261184, vol. 14 (2), p. 34-43, 2013. (Socio-EconomicInformation593KB)

**Ngo, Y.T. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. International Journal of Evidence Based Healthcare, vol. 11, p. 81-82, doi: 10.1111/1744-1609.12012, 2013. (HumanNutritionBloodPressure192KB)

**Nyadanu, D.; Akromah, R.; Adomako, B.; Awuah, R.T.; Kwoseh, C.; Dzahini-Obiatey, H.; Lowor, S.T.; Akrofi, A.Y.; Assuah, M.K. Effects of Cocoa Swollen Shoot Virus infection on foliar resistance to P. palmivora and P. megakarya and its implications in selection and breeding against black pod disease. Inter. Journal Plant Pathology, vol. 3 (2), p. 45-55, 2012. (Diseases&PestsSwollenShootBlackPod659KB)

**Okoya, A.A., Ogunfowokan, A.O., Asubiojo, O.I. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Sediments and Waters from Cocoa Producing Areas of Ondo State, Southwestern Nigeria. ISRN Soil Science ISSN/EISSN: 2090875X , DOI: 10.1155/2013/131647, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityPesticideResidues715KB)

**Oyekale, A.S. Climate change and cocoa production efficiency losses in Ondo East Local government, Nigeria.  Life Science Journal, 9 (3), pp. 726-732, 2012. (Environment&SustainabilityClimateChange415KB)

**Oyekale, A.S., Adepoju, A.O. Determinants of agricultural intensification in southwest Nigeria. Life Science Journal, 9 (3), pp. 370-376, 2012. (Socio-EconomicAgriculturalIntensidfication166KB)

**Pereira, L.D.; Resende, M.L.; Mathioni, S.M.; Campos, M.A.; Ribeiro, J.P.; Camilo, F.R.; Silva, A.T.; Paiva, L.V. Protective effect and expression of defense-related ESTs induced by acibenzolar-S-methyl and a phosphorylated mannan oligosaccharide-based product against Moniliophthora perniciosa in Theobroma cacao. African J. Biotechnol., vol. 12 (12), p. 1311-1317, 2013. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraDefense476KB)

**Pohe, J., Pohe, S.S., Okou, S.F.  Association of copper oxide and metalaxyl in the fight against cocoa pod rot in Cote d’Ivoire.Journal Animal Plant Sciences, vol. 16 (3), p. 2362-2368, 2013. (Diseases&PestsIPM289KB)

**Portillo, E., Portillo, A.  Cocoa production in the state of Zulia: Socioeconomic impact on cocoa farmers on the “chocolate route” [La producción de cacao en el estado Zulia: Impacto socioeconómico en los cacaocultores "ruta del chocolate"]. Opcion, vol. 28 (68), p. 303-323, 2012. (Diseases&PestsIPM289KB)

**Prieto-Benavides, O.O., Belezaca-Pinargote, C.E., Mora-Silva, W.F., Garcés-Fiallos, F.R., Sabando-Ávila, F.A., Cedeño-Loja, P.E. Identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cocoa agroforestry systems in the Ecuadorian humid tropics. [In Spanish] Agronomía Mesoamericana, vol. 23 (2), p. 233-239, 2012. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestry Mycorrhia287KB)

**Quiroz-Reyes, C.N., Aguilar-Méndez, M.A., Ramírez-Ortíz, M.E., Ronquillo-De Jesús, E. Comparative study of ultrasound and maceration techniques for the extraction of polyphenols from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) [Estudio comparativo entre las técnicas de ultrasonido y maceración para la extracción de polifenoles del grano de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)]. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniera Quimica, vol. 12 (1), p. 11-18, 2013. (PostharvestPolyphenolExtraction1MB)

**Ribeiro, M.A.Q., Almeida, A.-A.F., Mielke, M.S., Gomes, F.P., Pires, M.V., Baligar, V.C. Aluminum effects on growth, photosynthesis, and mineral nutrition of cacao genotypes. Journal Plant Nutrition, 36 (8), pp. 1161-1179, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyAluminumEffects286KB)

**Rizali, A., Clough, Y., Buchori, D., Tscharntke, T. Dissimilarity of ant communities increases with precipitation, but not reduced land-use intensity, in Indonesian cacao agroforestry. Diversity, vol. 5 (1), p. 26-38, 2013. (Environment&Sustainability Biodiversity960KB)

**Salajegheh, D.; Vaziri, A.; Bastani, D. Supercritical extraction of cocoa butter from cocoa seed, using pure carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide with ethanol as co-solvent and ethane. Middle East Journal Scientific Research, vol. 13 (8), p. 1010-1015, 2013. (PostharvestButterExtraction348KB)

**Salim, M.A. The Time Variation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Inoculation in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao L.) Pod for Bioethanol Production. J. Asian Scientific Research, vol. 3 (3), p. 268-274. (PostHarvestFermentationBioethanol217KB)

**Somarriba, E., Cerda, R., Orozco, L., Cifuentes, M., Dávila, H., Espin, T., Mavisoy, H., Ávila, G., Alvarado, E., Poveda, V., Astorga, C., Say, E., Deheuvels, O. Carbon stocks and cocoa yields in agroforestry systems of Central America. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, vol. 173, p. 46-57, 2013. (Environment&Sustainability AgroforestryCarbon1.93MB)

**Suárez, G.M.; Florido, B.R.; Soto, C.F.; Caballero, N.A. Base for the agroecological zoning of the cocoa (Theobroma cocoa, Lin) for half the approach of experts. Cultivos Tropicales; vol. 34 (2); p. 30-37, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroecology136KB)

**Ten Hoopen, G.M., Deberdt, P., Mbenoum M., Cilas, C. Modelling cacao pod growth: implications for disease control. Annals Applied Biology, vol. 160 (3), p. 260-272, 2012. (Diseases&PestsResistanceGenotype642KB)

**Turcotte, A.-M., Scott, P.M., Tague, B. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins. Mycotoxin Research, pp. 1-9. Article in Press, 2013. (Post-HarvestQualityMycotoxin233KB)

**Useche, P., Blare, T. Traditional vs. modern production systems: Price and nonmarket considerations of cacao producers in Northern Ecuador. Ecological Economics, vol. 93, p. 1-10, 2013. (Socio-EconomicMarket871KB)

**Zzaman, W.; Yang, T.A. Effect of Superheated Steam and Convection Roasting on Changes in Physical Properties of Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao). Food science and technology research; vol. 19 (2); p. 181-186, 2013. (PostHarvestRoasting134KB)

**Complete articles are available on the WCF website in the Research Library. These articles are accessible to the cacao research community for research purposes only. This bibliography was developed with assistance from the National Agricultural Library, Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.

In developing countries access to expanded free literature may be explored by going to this link.

Contributions to the WCF Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or wcf@worldcocoa.org. News items will be included in the next update.

Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to wcf@worldcocoa.org.

These categorized articles are available at the indicated affiliation address:

Biology:

Anda, M., Shamshuddin, J., Fauziah, C.I. Increasing negative charge and nutrient contents of a highly weathered soil using basalt and rice husk to promote cocoa growth under field conditions. (2013) Soil and Tillage Research, 132, pp. 1-11. AFFILIATIONS: Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resource Research and Development, Agency of Agricultural Research and Developement, Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 12, Cimanggu Bogor 16114, Jawa Barat, Indonesia; KEYWORDS: Basalt;  Cocoa;  Oxisols;  Rice husk;  Surface charge; Biology

Gattward, J.N.; Souza Jr, J.O.; Almeida, A.-A.F.; Gomes, F.P.; Kronzucker, H.J. Sodium-potassium synergism in Theobroma cacao: Stimulation of photosynthesis, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrition. Physiologia plantarum; 2012;  (); AFFILIATION: Departamento de Ciências Agrárias e ambientais, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. j.gattward@gmail.com. KEYWORDS: Biology; Ecology

Kalili, K.M., De Villiers, A. Systematic optimisation and evaluation of on-line, off-line and stop-flow comprehensive hydrophilic interaction chromatography × reversed phase liquid chromatographic analysis of procyanidins. Part II: Application to cocoa procyanidins. (2013) Journal of Chromatography A, 1289, pp. 69-79. AFFILIATIONS: Stellenbosch University, Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South Africa. KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC); Procyanidins;  Stop-flow; Biology

Koko, L.K., Snoeck, D., Lekadou, T.T., Assiri, A.A. Cacao-fruit tree intercropping effects on cocoa yield, plant vigour and light interception in Côte d’Ivoire.  (2013) Agroforestry Systems, pp. 1-10. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: CNRA Divo, Programme Cacao, Divo, Cote d’Ivoire; CIRAD, UPR Systèmes de pérennes, Montpellier, 34398, France; KEYWORDS: Agroforestry;  Incident light;  Logistical function;  Planting distance; Biology

Leite, H.A.C., Silva, A.B., Gomes, F.P., Gramacho, K.P., Faria, J.C., De Souza, J.T., Loguercio, L.L. Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth. (2013) Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 97 (6), pp. 2639-2651. AFFILIATIONS: Departamento Ciências Biológicas (DCB), Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Rod. BR 415, Km 16, Ilhéus BA 45662-000, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Endophytic colonization;  Enterobacteriaceae;  Holobiont;  Hologenome theory;  Nurseries production;  PGPR;  Plant growth promotion;  Seedlings;  Spore forming

Disease/Pest:

Ameyaw, G.A., Wetten, A., Dzahini-Obiatey, H., Domfeh, O. , Allainguillaume, J.  Investigation on Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) pollen transmission through cross-pollination. (2013) Plant Pathology, 62 (2), pp. 421-427. AFFILIATIONS: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, PO Box 8, New Akim-Tafo, E/R, Ghana; KEYWORDS: Badnavirus;  CSSV;  PCR;  Pollen;  Seed transmission;  Theobroma cacao; Disease

Britto, D.S., Pirovani, C.P., Andrade, B.S., dos Santos, T.P., Pungartnik, C., Cascardo, J.C.M., Micheli, F., Gesteira, A.S. Recombinant β-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Theobroma cacao impairs Moniliophthora perniciosa mycelial growth.(2013) Molecular Biology Reports, pp. 1-11. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Centro de Biotecnologia e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Rodovia Ilhéus-Itabuna, km 16, Ilhéus, 45662-900, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Antifungal activity;  Glycosyl hydrolases;  Pathogenesis related protein;  Witches’ broom; Diseases&Pests

Camara Leite, H.A.; Silva, A.B.; Gomes, F.P.; Gramacho, K.P.; Faria, J.C.; de Souza, J.T.; Loguercio, L.L. Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter cloacae endophytes from healthy Theobroma cacao L. trees can systemically colonize seedlings and promote growth. Applied microbiology biotechnology; 2013; 97 (6); 2639-2651. AFFILIATION: Departamento Ciências Biológicas (DCB), Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Rod. BR 415, Km 16, Ilhéus, BA 45662-000, Brazil. KEYWORDS: Diseases

Ngo Bieng, M.A., Gidoin, C., Avelino, J., Cilas, C., Deheuvels, O., Wery, J. Diversity and spatial clustering of shade trees affect cacao yield and pathogen pressure in Costa Rican agroforests. (2013) Basic and Applied Ecology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: CIRAD, UMR System, 2 Place Viala, Bât.27, 34060 Montpellier, France; KEYWORDS: Agroforestry;  Clustering;  Costa Rica;  Moniliophthora roreri;  Ripley’s K-function; Diseaese&Pests

Padi, F.K., Adu-Gyamfi, P., Akpertey, A., Arthur, A., Ofori, A. Differential response of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) families to field establishment stress. (2013) Plant Breeding, 132 (2), pp. 229-236. AFFILIATIONS: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, Box 8, New-Tafo, Akim, Ghana. KEYWORDS: Cacao;  Drought;  General combining ability;  Seedling establishment;  Seedling survival

Padi, F.K., Domfeh, O., Takrama, J., Opoku, S. An evaluation of gains in breeding for resistance to the cocoa swollen shoot virus disease in Ghana. (2013) Crop Protection, 51, pp. 24-31. AFFILIATIONS: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, P.O. Box 8, New-Tafo, Akim, Ghana KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Cocoa swollen shoot virus;  CSSV;  Mealybug;  West Africa; Disease

Talontsi, F.M., Dittrich, B., Schüffler, A., Sun, H., Laatsch, H. Epicoccolides: Antimicrobial and antifungal polyketides from an endophytic fungus Epicoccum sp. associated with Theobroma cacao. (2013) European Journal of Organic Chemistry, (15), pp. 3174-3180. AFFILIATIONS: Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, Georg August University, Tammannstrasse 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany. KEYWORDS: Antifungal agents;  Antimicrobial agents;  Natural products;  Polyketides;  Structure elucidation; Diseases & Pests

Teixeira, P.J.P.L., Costa, G.G.L., Fiorin, G.L., Pereira, G.A.G., Costa Mondego, J.M. Novel receptor-like kinases in cacao contain PR-1 extracellular domains. (2013) Molecular Plant Pathology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC) Campinas, SP 13075-630 Brazil; KEYWORDS: Atlantic forest;  Microclimate;  Rainfall;  Vapor pressure deficit; Disease

Villela-Dias C, Camilo LR, de Oliveira GA, Sena JA, Santiago AS, de Sousa ST,

Mendes JS, Pirovani CP, Alvim FC, Costa MG. Nep1-like protein from Moniliophthora perniciosa induces a rapid proteome and metabolome reprogramming in cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. Physiol Plant. 2013 Apr 15. doi: 10.1111/ppl.12061. [Epub ahead of print]. AFFILIATION: Laboratório de Proteômica, Centro de Biotecnologia e Genética, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil; Mars Center for Cocoa Science, CP 55, Itajuipe, Bahia, Brazil. KEYWORD: Disease

EnvironmentAgroforestry:

Anda, M., Shamshuddin, J., Fauziah, C.I. Increasing negative charge and nutrient contents of a highly weathered soil using basalt and rice husk to promote cocoa growth under field conditions. (2013) Soil and Tillage Research, 132, pp. 1-11. AFFILIATIONS: Indonesian Center for Agricultural Land Resource Research and Development, Agency of Agricultural Research and Developement, Jalan Tentara Pelajar No. 12, Cimanggu Bogor 16114, Jawa Barat, Indonesia; KEYWORDS: Basalt;  Cocoa;  Oxisols;  Rice husk;  Surface charge; Agroforestry

Ngo Bieng, M.A., Gidoin, C., Avelino, J., Cilas, C. , Deheuvels, O., Wery, J. Diversity and spatial clustering of shade trees affect cacao yield and pathogen pressure in Costa Rican agroforests.(2013) Basic and Applied Ecology, 14 (4), pp. 329-336, AFFILIATIONS: CIRAD, UMR System, 2 Place Viala, Bât.27, 34060 Montpellier, France; KEYWORDS: Agroforestry;  Clustering;  Costa Rica;  Moniliophthora roreri;  Ripley’s K-function;  Species interactions;  Theobroma cacao;

Nygren, P., Leblanc, H.A., Lu, M., Gómez Luciano, C.A. Distribution of coarse and fine roots of Theobroma cacao and shade tree Inga edulis in a cocoa plantation. (2013) Annals of Forest Science, 70 (3), pp. 229-239. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, 00014 Helsinki, Finland; KEYWORDS: Agroforestry;  Fractal networks;  Organic farming;  Resource sharing;  Root architecture;  Root length

Postharvest:

Ahmad, F., Daud, W.M.A.W., Ahmad, M.A., Radzi, R. The effects of acid leaching on porosity and surface functional groups of cocoa (Theobroma cacao)-shell based activated carbon. (2013) Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 91 (6), pp. 1028-1038. AFFILIATIONS: Chemistry and Technology Division, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Lot 12621, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia; KEYWORDS: Activated carbon;  Ash;  Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shell;  Leaching;  Optimization;  Response Surface Methodology (RSM); Postharvest

Arentoft, B.W., Ali, A., Streibig, J.C., Andreasen, C.  A new method to evaluate the weed-suppressing effect of mulches: A comparison between spruce bark and cocoa husk mulches. (2013) Weed Research, 53 (3), pp. 169-175. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Taastrup, Denmark. KEYWORDS: Dose-response models;  Postharvest; Mulching;  Non-chemical weed control; 

Calatayud, M.; López-de-Dicastillo, C.; López-Carballo, G.; Vélez, D.; Hernández, M.P.; Gavara, R. Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications. Food chemistry; 2013; 139 (1/4); 51-58. AFFILIATION: Contamination Lab, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, IATA-CSIC, Av. Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain. KEYWORD: Postharvest

Copetti, M.V.; Iamanaka, B.T.; Nester, M.A.; Efraim, P.; Taniwaki, M.H. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture. Food chemistry; 2013; 136 (1); 100-104. AFFILIATION: Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departament of Food Science and Technology, Santa Maria, Brazil. mvc@smail.ufsm.br KEYWORD: Postharvest

de Melo Pereira, G.V.; Magalhaes, K.T.; de Almeida, E.G.; Coelho, I.D.; Schwan, R.F. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties. International journal of food microbiology; 2013; 161 (2); 121-133. AFFILIATION: Biology Department, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), CEP 37200-000, Lavras, MG, Brazil. KEYWORDS:  Lactobacillus; Saccharomyces; Hanseniaspora; Postharvest

Dóka, O., Prágai, E.a, Bicanic, D., Kulcsár, R., Ajtony, Z.  Colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy as a suitable tool for determination of fat-free cocoa solids in dark chocolates. (2013) European Food Research and Technology, 236 (6), pp. 963-968. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of West Hungary, Deák F. sq.1, 9200 Mosonmagyaróvár, Hungary. KEYWORDS:  Colorimetry;  Confectionary;  Fat-free cocoa solids;  Photoacoustic spectroscopy; Postharvest

Efraim, P., Pires, J.L., Garcia, A.d.O., Grimaldi, R., Luccas, V., Pezoa-Garcia, N.H. Characteristics of cocoa butter and chocolates obtained from cocoa varieties grown in Bahia, Brazil. (2013) European Food Research and Technology, pp. 1-10. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil; AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Cacao;  Chocolate;  Evaluation;  Quality;  Varieties; Postharvest

Foong, Y.J., Lee, S.T., Ramli, N., Tan, Y.N., Ayob, M.K. Incorporation of potential probiotic lactobacillus plantarum isolated from fermented cocoa beans into dark chocolate: Bacterial viability and physicochemical properties analysis. AFFILIATIONS: School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Fac. of Sci. and Technol., Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, 43600, Malaysia.

Hii, C.L., Law, C.L., Law, M.C. Simulation of heat and mass transfer of cocoa beans under stepwise drying conditions in a heat pump dryer. (2013) Applied Thermal Engineering, 54 (1), pp. 264-271.  AFFILIATIONS: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia; KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Drying;  Heat transfer;  Mass transfer;  Simulation; Postharvest

Papalexandratou, Z., Lefeber, T., Bahrim, B., Lee, O.S., Daniel, H.-M., De Vuyst, L. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process. (2013) Food Microbiology, 35 (2), pp. 73-85. AFFILIATIONS: Faculty of Sciences and Bioengineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium; KEYWORDS: (GTG)5-PCR;  Acetic acid bacteria;  Lactic acid bacteria;  Malaysia;  PCR-DGGE;  Yeast; Postharvest

Romero-Cortes T, Salgado-Cervantes MA, García-Alamilla P, García-Alvarado MA, DelC Rodríguez-Jimenes G, Hidalgo-Morales M, Robles-Olvera V. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans. J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Feb 4. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6088. [Epub ahead of print]. Unidad de Investigación y Desarrollo en Alimentos, Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz, Av. Miguel Angel de Quevedo No. 2779, Col. Formando Hogar, C.P. 91897, Veracruz, Mexico.

Snauwaert, I., Papalexandratou, Z., De Vuyst, L., Vandamme, P. Characterization of strains of Weissella fabalis sp. nov. and Fructobacillus tropaeoli from spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations. (2013) International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 63 (PART 5), pp. 1709-1716. AFFILIATIONS: Laboratory of Microbiology, Ghent University, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; KEYWORDS: Fermentation; Postharvest

Teye, E., Huang, X., Han, F., Botchway, F. Discrimination of Cocoa Beans According to Geographical Origin by Electronic Tongue and Multivariate Algorithms. (2013) Food Analytical Methods, pp. 1-6. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Xuefu Road 301, Zhenjiang, 212013, China; KEYWORDS: Cocoa beans;  Discrimination;  Electronic tongue;  Support vector machine; Postharvest

Tixier, C. From cacao-tree to chocolate: Travel at the source of aromas and flavours [De l'arbre à cacao au chocolat: voyage à la source des arômes et des saveurs]. (2013) Phytotherapie, 11 (2), pp. 79-84. AFFILIATIONS: 48, rue de Metz, F-31000 Toulouse, France. KEYWORDS: Cacao pod;  Cacao-tree;  Cocoa beans;  Drying process;  Fermentation process;  Nibs;  Precursors of aromas;  Roasting process; Postharvest

Vriesmann, L.C., Petkowicz, C.L.O. Highly acetylated pectin from cacao pod husks (Theobroma cacao L.) forms gel. (2013) Food Hydrocolloids, 33 (1), pp. 58-65.

AFFILIATIONS: Universidade Federal do Paraná, Depart.Bioquímica e Biologia Molec., CP 19046, 81531-980 Curitiba-PR, Brazil. KEYWORDS: Rheology;  Postharvest

Economic:

Akinyemi, F.O. An assessment of land-use change in the Cocoa Belt of south-west Nigeria. (2013) International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34 (8), pp. 2858-2875. AFFILIATIONS: Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design, Kigali Institute of Science and Technology, Kigali, Rwanda. KEYWORD: Economic

Andreoni, V.,  Duriavig, M. Economic resilience and land use: The cocoa crisis in the rio cachoeira catchment, Brazil. (2013) Environmental Policy and Governance, 23 (2), pp. 118-129. AFFILIATIONS: University of Udine, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Udine, Italy; KEYWORDS: Cocoa crisis;  Land use;  Monoculture;  Resilience;  Sustainable management

Berlan, A. Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Anthropological Perspective on Child Labour in Cocoa Production in Ghana. (2013) Journal of Development Studies, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Coventry Business School, Coventry University, Coventry CV1 5FB, UK. KEYWORD: Economic

Janick, J. Development of new world crops by indigenous Americans. (2013) HortScience, 48 (4), pp. 406-412. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2010, United States. KEYWORDS: Cucurbits;  Fruits;  Grains;  Industrial crops;  Legumes;  Nightshades;  Ornamentals;  Pseudograins; Cacao; Economic

Soh, P.T., Nguéma, E.-P.N., Gwet, H., Ndoumbè-Nkeng, M. Smooth estimation of a lifetime distribution with competing risks by using regular interval observations: Application to cocoa fruits growth. (2013) Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series C: Applied Statistics, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: University of Yaoundé I Cameroon; Ecole Polytechnique Yaoundé,Cameroon; KEYWORDS: Cocoa fruits;  Competing risks;  Developmental stage;  Discrete time;  Lifetime;  Pod rot disease;  Quadratic piecewise polynomial;  Survival function; Economic

Health:

Bianchi-Demicheli, F., Sekoranja, L., Pechère-Bertschi, A. Sexuality, heart and chocolate [Sexualité, cœur et chocolat]. (2013) Revue Medicale Suisse, 9 (378), pp. 624-629. AFFILIATIONS: Consultation de Gynécologie Psychosomatique et Médecine Sexuelle, Département de Gynécologie et Obstétrique, Switzerland; KEYWORD: Health

Cady, R.J., Denson, J.E., Durham, P.L. Inclusion of cocoa as a dietary supplement represses expression of inflammatory proteins in spinal trigeminal nucleus in response to chronic trigeminal nerve stimulation. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Center for Biomedical and Life Sciences Missouri State University Springfield, MO USA. KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Cytokines;  Inflammation;  Sensitization;  Trigeminal; Health

Cimini A, Gentile R, D’Angelo B, Benedetti E, Cristiano L, Avantaggiati M, Giordano A, Ferri C, Desideri G. Cocoa powder triggers neuroprotective and preventive effects in a human Alzheimer’s Disease model by modulating BDNF signaling pathway. J Cell Biochem. 2013 Mar 28. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24548. [Epub ahead of print]. AFFILIATION: Dept of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Italy; KEYWORD: Health

de Oliveira, T.B., Genovese, M.I. Chemical composition of cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) and cocoa (Theobroma cacao) liquors and their effects on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (2013) Food Research International, 51 (2), pp. 929-935.  AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 14, 05508-900 São Paulo SP, Brazil. KEYWORDS: Chocolate;  Cocoa;  Cupuassu;  Streptozotocin-induced diabetes;  Theobroma grandiflorum; Health

Fernández, V.S.; López, C.N.; Miguel, M.; Aleixandre, A. Nitric oxide mediates the antihypertensive and vascular relaxing effects of a soluble cocoa fiber product in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Nitric oxide; 2013; 29 (); 1-3. AFFILIATION:  Dpto. Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain. KEYWORDS:  Health

Fidaleo, M., Sartori, C. PPARα signaling is activated by cocoa in mouse liver. (2013) Natural Product Communications, 8 (5), pp. 579-582. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Biology and Biotechnology Charles Darwin, University of Rome Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro, 5, 00185, Rome, Italy; KEYWORDS: Catechins;  Ciprofibrate;  Cocoa;  Mouse liver;  Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor

Fisher, N.D.L., Hurwitz, S., Hollenberg, N.K. Habitual flavonoid intake and endothelial function in healthy humans. (2012) Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 31 (4), pp. 275-279. AFFILIATIONS: Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. KEYWORDS: Aging;  Diet; Health

Fogleman, C.D. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure. (2013) American Family Physician, 87 (7), p. 484. AFFILIATIONS: Lancaster General Hospital Residency, Lancaster, PA, United States. KEYWORDS: Health; Review

Fu, Z., Yuskavage, J., Liu, D.  Dietary flavonol epicatechin prevents the onset of type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. (2013) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (18), pp. 4303-4309. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061,KEYWORDS: flavonol;  islets;  health

Gálvez, J.Q., Sánchez, C.R.T., Ruiz, Y.C., Molina, Y.Q., De la Torre, C.M.H. Antioxidant potential of phenolic extracts of theobroma cacao L. (cocoa) [Potencial de actividad antioxidante de extractos fenólicos de Theobroma cacao L. (cacao)] (2013) Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales, 18 (2), pp. 201-215. AFFILIATIONS: Centro de Bioplantas, Universidad de Ciego de Ávila, Carretera a Morón, Km 9, Ciego de Ávila, CP. 69450, Cuba. KEYWORDS: Antioxidant activity;  Phenolic compounds; Health

Gu, Y., Lambert, J.D. Modulation of metabolic syndrome-related inflammation by cocoa. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 May 2. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200837. [Epub ahead of print]. AFFILIATION:Center of Excellence for Plant and Mushroom Foods For Health, Dept. of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Lecerf, J.-M. Cardiovascular benefits of cocoa and chocolate [Bénéfices cardiovasculaires du cacao et du chocolat]. (2013) Phytotherapie, 11 (2), pp. 85-91. AFFILIATIONS: Service de Nutrition, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1, rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59019 Lille, France.KEYWORDS: Blood pressure;  Cardiovascular risk;  Chocolate;  Cholesterol;  Cocoa;  Endothelial dysfunction;  Fatty acids;  Polyphenols

Llorach R, Urpi-Sarda M, Tulipani S, Garcia-Aloy M, Monagas M, Andres-Lacueva C. Metabolomic fingerprint in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease by cocoa intervention. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013 May 2. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201200736. [Epub ahead of print]. AFFILIATION:  Department of Nutrition and Food Science, XaRTA, INSA, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

Locatelli, M.; Travaglia, F.; Giovannelli, L.; Coisson, J.D.; Bordiga, M.; Pattarino, F.; Arlorio, M. Clovamide and phenolics from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) inhibit lipid peroxidation in liposomal systems. Food research international; 2013; 50 (1); 129-134. AFFILIATION: Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, 28100, Novara, Italy. KEYWORD: Health

Martin, M.A.; Goya, L.; Ramos, S. Potential for preventive effects of cocoa and cocoa polyphenols in cancer. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the british industrial biological research association; 2013; 56 (); 336-51. AFFILIATION: Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), José Antonio Novais 10, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. KEYWORD: Health

Min, S.Y., Yang, H., Seo, S.G., Shin, S.H., Chung, M.-Y., Kim, J., Lee, S.J., Lee, H.J., Lee, K.W. Cocoa polyphenols suppress adipogenesis in vitro and obesity in vivo by targeting insulin receptor. (2013) International Journal of Obesity, 37 (4), pp. 584-592.AFFILIATIONS: Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, WCU, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; KEYWORDS: adipogenesis;  cocoa polyphenols;  insulin receptor;  mitotic clonal expansion; Health

Morand, C. What is known about the health effects of polyphenols from tea and cocoa? [Les polyphénols du thé et du cacao ont-ils des effets santé ?]. (2013) Phytotherapie, pp. 1-8. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: INRA, UMR1019-Unité de nutrition humaine (UNH), équipe micronutriments et santé cardiovasculaire (MicroCard), Saint-Genès-Champanelle, F-63122, France. KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Dietary phenolics;  Flavanols;  Flavonoids;  Health effects;  Tea; Health

Neufingerl, N., Zebregs, Y.E., Schuring, E.A., Trautwein, E.A. Effect of cocoa and theobromine consumption on serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print] AFFILIATION: Nutrition and Health Department and Unilever Clinicals, Unilever Research & Development Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, Netherlands.KEYWORDS: Flavonoids; Apolipoprotiens; Health

Pase, M.P., Scholey, A.B., Pipingas, A., Kras, M., Nolidin, K., Gibbs, A., Wesnes, K., Stough, C. Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (2013) Journal Psychopharmacology, 27 (5), pp. 451-458. AFFILIATIONS: Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia; KEYWORDS: anxiety;  cognition;  flavonol;  mood;  polyphenol

Pizza, V., Mainenti, M., Iannuzzi, S., Agresta, A., Cassano, D., Colucci d’Amato, C., Capasso, A. Food intolerance in migraine. (2013) Pharmacologyonline, 1, pp. 18-24. AFFILIATIONS: Neurophysiopatology Service, Italy; Endocrinology Service, ASL SA/3, Italy. KEYWORDS: Cytotoxic test; Cocoa; Coffee; Tyrosine; Solanaceae; Health

Sarmadi, B.; Aminuddin, F.; Ismail, A.; Hamid, M.; Saari, N.; Abdul-Hamid, A. Hypoglycemic effects of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) autolysates. Food chemistry; 2012; 134 (2); 905-911. AFFILIATION: Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.KEYWORDS: Health; Fat; alkaloid; polyphenol; peptides

Tangney, C.C., Rasmussen, H.E. Polyphenols, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease. (2013) Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 15 (5), pp. 1-10. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Rush University Medical Center, 1700 W Van Buren, Ste 425, Chicago, 60612, United StatesSpringer Science+Business Media New York. KEYWORDS: Adhesion markers;  Cell signaling;  Endothelial dysfunction;  Flavonoid;  Flow-mediated vasodilation;  Inflammation;  Olive oil;  Phenolic acids;  Health

Vázquez-Agell, M., Urpi-Sarda, M., Sacanella, E., Camino-López, S., Chiva-Blanch, G., Llorente-Cortés, V., Tobias, E., Roura, E., Andres-Lacueva, C., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M., Badimon, L., Estruch, R.  Cocoa consumption reduces NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in humans. (2013) Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 23 (3), pp. 257-263. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORDS: Adhesion molecules;  Cocoa powder;  Inflammation;  Matrix effect;  NF-κB;  Polyphenols; Health

 

Prepared by Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor —  July 1, 2013.