The WCF/USDA Research Update is authored by Dr. Robert Lumsden.

RESEARCH GROUPS:

From Andrew Daymond: To all our cocoa colleagues, Please find the latest edition of the International Cocoa Quarantine Centre Newsletter:  ICQR June Newsletter.

From Chris Turnbull, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Reading, UK. A new CD-ROM version of the NYSE Liffe/CRA Ltd./University of Reading International Cocoa Germplasm Database, ICGD 2012 is available. The database can be searched for germplasm based on origin, location and a wide range of character data. All available data can be viewed for each clone, including photographs and microsatellite (SSR) profiles. All information is referenced to its original source. Copies of the CD-ROM can be obtained from Chris Turnbull (icgd@reading.ac.uk) free of charge for bona fide applicants, though those with internet access are encouraged to use the online version at www.icgd.reading.ac.uk since this will contain the most up to date information and links to other on-line databases.

RESEARCH ON THE INTERNET:

From Nutraingredients. Dark chocolate consumption linked with heart benefits. By Nathan Gray 4 June 2012. Consumption of dark chocolate could help to shrink the risk of heart disease in people with metabolic syndrome, according to new scientific data.

From Nutraingredients. Nestlé centralises clinical research in new centre. By Nathan Gray 6 June 2012. Nestlé will centralise the development and management of all of its clinical trials, after the inauguration of its new clinical development unit and metabolic research centre in Lausanne, Switzerland.

From Confectionerynews. Healthy chocolate ‘breakthrough’: Lycotec develops ingredient to unlock cocoa’s health potential. By Oliver Nieburg 7 June 2012. Biotech firm Lycotec has developed an ingredient that it claims can harness the health potential in both dark and milk chocolate and lead to products with anti-ageing, injury recovery and increased physical performance properties.

From Nutraingredients. New research unit will help Nestlé quest for health claims gold. By Nathan Gray 7 June 2012. Nestlé is now ‘better armed’ to gun for EFSA approved health claims approvals, after the company centralised its clinical research efforts at a new unit in Lausanne, Switzerland.

RECENT CACAO/COCOA PUBLICATIONS:

**Bosompem, M., Kwarteng, J.A., Ntifo-Siaw, E. Perceived impact of cocoa innovations on the livelihoods of cocoa farmers in Ghana: the Sustainable Livelihood Framework (SL) approach. J. Sustainable Development in Africa, 2011, vol. 13 (4) (SocioEconomicLivelihood82.3KB)

**David, S., Asamoah, C. Farmer knowledge as an early indicator of IPM adoption: a case study from cocoa farmer field schools in Ghana. J. Sustainable Development in Africa, 2011, vol. 13 (4), p. 213-224. (SocioEconomicFarmertraining133KB)

**Ford, C.S., Wilkinson, M.J. Confocal observations of late-acting self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L. Sex Plant Reprod. 2012 May 27. [Epub ahead of print] (Genomics&PhysiologySelfIncompatibility1.2MB)

**Galante, R.S., Taranto, A.G., Koblitz, M.G., Góes-Neto, A., Pirovani, C.P., Cascardo, J.C., Cruz, S.H., Pereira, G.A., Assis, S.A. Purification, characterization and structural determination of chitinases produced by Moniliophthora perniciosa. Ann. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 2012, vol. 84(2), p. 469-86. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthora45.2MB)

**Gu, Y.; Hurst, W.J.; Stuart, D.A.; Lambert, J.D. Inhibition of key digestive enzymes by cocoa extracts and procyanidins. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2011, vol. 59 (10), p. 5305-5311. (HumanNutritionProcyanidin1.2MB)

**Illeghems, K., De Vuyst, L., Papalexandratou, Z., Weckx, S. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity. PLoS One. 2012, vol. 7(5):e38040. Epub 2012 May 29. (PostHarvestfermentation765KB)

**Ji, K., Zhang, D.P., Motilal, L., Boccara, M., Lachenaud, Ph., Meinhardt, L.W. Molecular characterization of traditional farmer varieties of cacao from Honduras and Nicaragua using Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers. Genet. Res. Crop Ev.. DOI 10.1007/s10722-012-9847- 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologySNPmarkers307KB)

**Jumnongpon, R., Chaiseri, S., Hongsprabhas, P., Healy, J.P., Meade, S.J., Gerrard, J.A. Cocoa protein crosslinking using Maillard chemistry. Food chemistry; 2012; 134 (1); 375-380. (PostHarvestProcessing612KB)

**Kane, N., Sveinsson, S., Dempewolf, H., Yang, J.Y., Zhang, D., Engels, J.M.M. , Cronk, Q. Ultra-barcoding in cacao (Theobroma spp.; Malvaceae) using whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA. American Journal of Botany, 99 (2), pp. 320-329. (Genomics&PhysiologyDNAbarcode600KB)

**Massot-Cladera, M., Pérez-Berezo, T., Franch, A., Castell, M. Pérez-Cano,F.J. Cocoa modulatory effect on rat faecal microbiota and colonic crosstalk.  Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2012), Article in Press. (HumanNutritionIntestionalMicrobiota840KB)

**Melnick, R.L., Marelli, J.-P., Sicher, R.C., Strem, M.D., Bailey, B.A. The interaction of Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa, the causal agent of witches’ broom disease, during parthenocarpy. Tree Genetics and Genomes, 2012, pp. 1-19. Article in Press. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthora939KB)

**Min, S.Y., Yang, H., Seo, S.G., Shin, S.H., Chung, M.Y., Kim, J., Lee, S.J., Lee, H.J., Lee, K.W. Cocoa polyphenols suppress adipogenesis in vitro and obesity in vivo by targeting insulin receptor. Int. J. Obes. (Lond)., 2012,doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.85. [Epub ahead of print]. (HumanNutritionPolyphenolAdipogenesis664KB)

**Moraes, W.B., Jesus, J.W., Peixoto, L.D., Moraes, W.B., Furtado, E.L., Silva, L.G., Cecílio, R.A., Alves, F.R. An analysis of the risk of cocoa moniliasis occurrence in Brazil as the result of climate change. Summa Phytopathologica, 2012, vol. 38 (1), p. 30-35. (Diseases&PestsMoniliasis3.16MB)

**Müller, C.B., dos Santos Weber, O.L., Scaramuzza, J.F. Oxidizable fraction of organic carbon in an argisol under different land use systems. Cerne, vol. 18, p. 215-222, 2012. (Environment&SustainabililyAgroforestry1.23MB)

**Oleaga, C.; García, M.; Solé, A.; Ciudad, C.J.; Izquierdo-Pulido, M.; Noé, V. CYP1A1 is overexpressed upon incubation of breast cancer cells with a polyphenolic cocoa extract. European journal of nutrition; 2012; 51 (4); 465-76. (HumanNutritionPolyphenol533KB)

**Pereira, G.V., Miguel, M.G., Ramos, C.L., Schwan, R.F. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacteria Strains for the Development of a Defined Starter Culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2012 May 25. [Epub ahead of print]. (PostHarvestFermentation2.85MB)

**Peter, P.K., Chandramohanan, R. Occurrence and distribution of cocoa (Theobroma cocoa L.) diseases in India. Journal of Research Angrau; 2011, vol. 39 (4), p. 44-50. (Diseases&PestsIndia235KB)

**Si, H. Fu, Z., Babu, P.V., Zhen, W., LeRoith, T., Meaney, M.P., Voelker, K.A., Jia, Z., Grange, R.W., Liu, D. Dietary epicatechin promotes survival of obese diabetic mice and Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of nutrition, 2011, vol. 141 (6), p. 1095-1100. (HumanNutritionEpicatechin671KB)

**Tzai-Li, L., Pei-Yun, C. Alterations of immunoendocrine responses during the recoveryperiod after acute prolonged cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol (2007) 101:539–546 DOI 10.1007/s00421-007-0529-1. (HumanNutritionAntioxidant374KB)

**Zomer, E., Owen, A., Magliano, D.J., Liew, D., Reid, C.M. The effectiveness and cost effectiveness of dark chocolate consumption as prevention therapy in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease: best case scenario analysis using a Markov model.  BMJ, 2012, 344:e3657 doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3657 (HumanNutritionPolyphenol327KB)

These categorized articles are available at the indicated affiliation address:

Biology:

Bekele, F.L., Butler, D.R., Bidaisee, G.G. Upper Amazon Forastero cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) 1: An assessment of phenotypic relationships in the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. (2008) Tropical Agriculture, 85 (1), pp. 1-15. AFFILIATION: Cocoa Research Unit, University of The West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. KEYWORDS: Cacao; Cluster Analysis; Cocoa; Conservation; Genetic improvement; Phenotypic diversity; Principal Component Analysis; Theobroma cacao L.; Utilisation. Biology

Bekele, F.L., Iwaro, A.D., Butler, D.R., Bidaisee, G.G. Upper Amazon Forastero cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) 2: An overview of Parinari clones from a breeder’s perspective. (2008) Tropical Agriculture, 85 (1), pp. 16-33. AFFILIATION: Cocoa Research Unit, University of The West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. KEYWORDS: Cacao; Characterisation; Cocoa breeding; Evaluation; Theobroma cacao L.; Biology

Ford, C.S., Wilkinson, M.J. Confocal observations of late-acting self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L. (2012) Sexual Plant Reproduction, pp. 1-15. Article in Press. AFFILIATION: School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, 5064, Australia. KEYWORDS: Cocoa; Confocal microscopy; Gametic non-fusion; Late-acting SI; Theobroma cacao; Biology

Disease/Pest:

Ameyaw, G.A. , Wetten, A., Dzahini-Obiatey, H., Domfeh, O , Allainguillaume, J. Investigation on Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) pollen transmission through cross-pollination. (2012) Plant Pathology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, PO Box 8, New Akim-Tafo, E/R, Ghana; KEYWORDS: Badnavirus; CSSV; PCR; Pollen; Seed transmission; Theobroma cacao; Disease/Pest

Mollineau, W.M., Bekele, F., Garcia, G.W. The Neo-tropical Red Squirrel (Sciurus granatensis) as a pest of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in the International Cacao Genebank, Trinidad; Trinidad. (2008) Tropical Agriculture, 85 (2), pp. 149-160. AFFILIATION: Cacao Research Unit, Department of Food Production, UWI, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; KEYWORDS: Cacao pod; Damage; Pod hardness; Pod length; Squirrel. Disease/Pest

Nyadanu, D., Akromah, R., Adomako, B., Kwoseh, C., Lowor, S.T., Dzahini-Obiatey, H., Akrofi, A.Y., Owusu Ansah, F., Assuah, M.K. Histological mechanisms of resistance to black pod disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). (2012) Journal of Plant Sciences, 7 (2), pp. 39-54. AFFILIATION: Department of Crop and Soil Sciences Education, College of Agriculture Education, University of Education, P.O. Box 40, Winneba, Mampong-Asante, Ghana. KEYWORDS: Anatomical; Black pod disease; Cellular; Resistance mechanisms; Theobroma cacao L.; Disease/Pest

Pinheiro, A.A.F., Taranto, A.G , Duarte, A.A., Neto, A.G., da Hora Júnior, B.T., Pereira, G.A.G., dos Santos Júnior, M.C., de Assis, S.A. Homology modeling studies of beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthase of Moniliophthora perniciosa. (2012) International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, . Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Health Department, Enzymology and Fermentation Technology Laboratory, State University of Feira de Santana (UEFS), Universitária Boulevard-Km 03, BR 116-BA, Feira de Santana, BA-Brazil, 44031-460; KEYWORDS: Beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthase; Glycosyltransferase; Homology modeling; Molecular targets; Moniliophthora perniciosa; Disease/Pest

Santos, R.M.F., Lopes, U.V. , Silva, S.D.V.M., Micheli, F., Clement, D., Gramacho, K.P. Identification of quantitative trait loci linked to Ceratocystis wilt resistance in cacao. (2012) Molecular Breeding, pp. 1-9. Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Cacao Research Center, CEPLAC/CEPEC, Itabuna, 45600-970, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Ceratocystis cacaofunesta; Marker-assisted selection; Quantitative resistance; Theobroma cacao; Disease/Pest

Environment:

Edwards, D.P., Laurance, S.G. Green labelling, sustainability and the expansion of tropical agriculture: Critical issues for certification schemes. (2012) Biological Conservation, 151 (1), pp. 60-64. AFFILIATION: Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science (TESS), School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns, Smithfield, QLD 4878, Australia. KEYWORDS: Agricultural conversion; Biodiversity banking; Corporate responsibility; Deforestation; Land-use change; Sustainable development; Environment

Ramirez-Villegas, J., Salazar, M., Jarvis, A., Navarro-Racines, C.E. A way forward on adaptation to climate change in Colombian agriculture: perspectives towards 2050

(2012) Climatic Change, pp. 1-18. Article in Press. AFFILIATION: International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali, AA6713, Colombia. KEYWORD: Environment

Postharvest:

Theivarasu, C., Mylsamy, S. Adsorption studies of acid blue-92 from aqueous solution by activated carbon obtained from agricultural industrial waste-cocoa (Theobroma cacao) shell. (2012) Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24 (5), pp. 2187-2190. AFFILIATION: Department of Chemistry, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore-641 004, India. KEYWORDS: Acid blue-92; Adsorption; Cocoa shell; Isotherm; Kinetics; Postharvest

Health:

Actis-Goretta, L., Lévèques, A., Giuffrida, F., Destaillats, F., Nagy, K.

Identification of O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-O-sulphate metabolites by mass-spectrometry after O-methylation with trimethylsilyldiazomethane. (2012) Journal of Chromatography A, 1245, pp. 150-157. AFFILIATION: Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland. AUTHOR KEYWORDS: (-)-Epicatechin metabolites; Derivatization; Multistage mass-spectrometry; Trimethylsilyldiazomethane; Health 

Ellinger, S., Reusch, A., Stehle, P., Helfrich, H.-P. Epicatechin ingested via cocoa products reduces blood pressure in humans: A nonlinear regression model with a Bayesian approach. (2012) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95 (6), pp. 1365-1377. AFFILIATION: Department of Nutrition and Food Science-Nutritional Physiology, University of Bonn, Endenicher Allee 11-13, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Health

Sarriá, B., Martínez-Lápez, S., Fernández-Espinosa, A., Gámez-Juaristi, M., Goya, L., Mateos, R., Bravo, L. Effects of regularly consuming dietary fibre rich soluble cocoa products on bowel habits in healthy subjects: A free-living, two-stage, randomized, crossover, single-blind intervention. (2012) Nutrition and Metabolism, 9, art. no. 33. AFFILIATION: Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), José Antonio Nováis 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain. KEYWORDS: Bowel function; Cocoa; Dietary fibre; Gastrointestinal transit time; Health

Zou, T., Percival, S.S., Cheng, Q., Li, Z., Rowe, C.A., Gu, L. Preparation, characterization, and induction of cell apoptosis of cocoa procyanidins-gelatin-chitosan nanoparticles(2012) European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, . Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. KEYWORDS: Chitosan; Cocoa; Gelatin; Nanoparticle; Procyanidin; Health.

Contributions to the WCF/USDA Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or wcf@worldcocoa.org. News items will be included in the next quarterly issue.

Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF/USDA Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to wcf@worldcocoa.org .

RDL –July 5, 2012.