RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT:  This issue concludes the contributions of the latest publications to the WCF Virtual Library contributed by Eduardo Somarriba at CATIE.  One outstanding publication from the work at CATIE is that of Dr. Wilbert Phillips-Mora and his team to generate many valuable cacao clones and catalogue them in a widely distributed publication.  The summary below describes this compilation and emphasizes the importance of this body of work to the distribution and use of these clones of cacao available to the cocoa sector for solution of major problems and enhancement of quality.   

Catalogue of cacao clones selected by CATIE for commercial plantings

CATIE (Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center) is a regional center dedicated to research and graduate education in agriculture, management, conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. Its members are the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Spain and the State of Acre in Brazil.

 The CATIE´s Cacao Improvement Program (CCIP) recently published in Spanish and English the Catalogue of cacao clones selected by CATIE for commercial plantings

The document summarizes the genetic, agronomic, morpho-physiological and molecular information of a group of six high yielding, moniliasis-tolerant trinitario clones. The document describes the genetic improvement strategy developed by CATIE and indicates the physical, environmenta                     m,l and agronomic conditions of the field trials involved in the process, as well as the reasons that justified the selection of the materials. Detailed descriptions are given with all the information available about the agronomic behavior of the clones: their productive potential, their natural and artificial reactions to moniliasis and black pod, and their industrial qualities.

The CCIP selected the clones CATIE-R1, CATIE-R4, CATIE-R6, CC-137, ICS-95 T1 and PMCT-58 in 2007 based on results from field trials conducted over the last 15 years.  These materials are now part of the genetic strategy of the Central American Cacao Project (Spanish acronym PCC) and many other regional initiatives that are designed to fully modernize plantations in the region and improve incomes and living conditions of farm families.  Within the framework of the PCC, the clones were established in a network of clonal gardens in Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala and Belize, which will help define their range of adaptation and the existence of genotype by environment (G x E) interactions.

The CCIP has created improved varieties using the extensive genetic diversity contained in its International Germplasm Collection (IC3). The last 30 years of research have resulted in identification of moniliasis (or frosty pod rot) tolerant-clones with distinct genetic and/or geographic origins. These clones are being crossed progressively to obtain varieties with increased levels of resistance, thus exploiting the predominantly additive character that this trait has in cacao.

These studies take on global relevance since moniliasis presents one of the most serious threats to modern cacao cultivation. The disease is currently confined to 13 countries of tropical America but it could spread to the major production centers in Western Africa and Southeast Asia placing the global chocolate industry at risk. On the other hand, the generation of highly resistant clones will allow cacao production in moniliasis-infested environments, where until recently the only alternative was to abandon or change the activity on the plantations, as it has been documented for different eras and countries of the region.

The use of improved varieties in combination with appropriate agricultural practices would help to increase the production and control diseases in ways that are more effective, long lasting and economically and environmentally friendly.  The progressive expansion that the six clones are showing in Central America and Mexico leads to the reasonable expectation that they will become an important source of Mesoamerican Trinitarian cacao in the near future.  W. Phillips-Mora, C.A.T.I.E.

MEETINGS:  From Eduardo Somarriba C. (CATIE), .  Notice: The forthcoming 3rd International Symposium on Multistrata Agroforestry Systems with Perennial Tree Crops (mostly coffee and cocoa), to be held September 2013,  at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.  This meeting will gather the top scientific community working with these two crops from an agroforestry, productive, environmental perspective.  The subject of the meeting in focused on the issue of how to intensify (cocoa cultivation) without excessive simplification (of the agroforestry system) so that good cocoa yields are achieved without sacrificing the contributions of diverse shade canopies to family livelihoods and to nature.  For further information contact:

From Sabariah Samsudin: MALAYSIA INTERNATIONAL COCOA CONFERENCE 2013 (MICC 2013), SUNWAY PYRAMID CONVENTION CENTRE, 7-8 OCTOBER 2013. The Malaysian Cocoa Board is organising The Malaysian International Cocoa Conference 2013 (MICC 2013) scheduled from 7 to 8 October 2013.  The theme will be ‘INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY DRIVING COCOA PRODUCTIVITY/SUSTAINABILITY’.  The conference will be held at SUNWAY PYRAMID CONVENTION CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR in beautiful Malaysia. Contact the Secretariat at +606-7990015 or go online at for more information and  guidelines for abstract, full paper and poster.  Dr. Sabariah Samsudin, Chairman, Malaysian International Cocoa Conference 2013 Organizing Committee.


From Darolyn Striley, Student Affairs Officer, Borlaug LEAP, Click here

The Norman E. Borlaug Leadership Enhancement in Agriculture Program (LEAP) is seeking applications for fellowship grant opportunities for students from sub-Saharan Africa.   The deadline is June 14, 2013. Applications are requested from sub-Saharan African students conducting research on topics related to USAID’s global hunger and food security initiative — FEED THE FUTURE.  The focus region is sub-Saharan Africa. All topics related to agriculture (as defined by Title XII) and the research strategies of the Feed the Future initiative are admissible. The Borlaug LEAP fellowship program supports engaging a mentor at a US University and at a CGIAR center to support and enhance the thesis research and mentoring experience.  Awards are made on a competitive basis to students who show strong scientific and leadership potential.


**Adjaloo, M., Banful, B.K.B., Odure, W.  Evaluation of Breeding Substrates for Cocoa Pollinator, Forcipomyia spp. and Subsequent Implications for Yield in a Tropical Cocoa Production System.  American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 4, p. 204-211, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyPollinator429KB)

**Adisa, B.O., Adeloye, K. A.  Factors Associated with Performance of Farmer Field School as Extension Approach to Cocoa Production in Osun State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, vol. 2, p. 162-170, 2012. (SocioEconomicFarmerFieldSchool552KB)

**Adriani, L., Indrayati, N., Darana, S. The effect of cocoa and fermented milk mixture on triglyceride and blood glucose contents of hyperlipidemia rats. Chiang Mai University Journal of Natural Sciences, 11 (1 SPECIAL ISSUE), pp. 383-386, 2011. (HumanNutritionTriglyceride587KB)

**Agom, D.I,  Ohen, S.B., Itam, K.I., Inyang, N.N. Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cocoa Farmers in Cross River State, NigeriaInternational Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, vol. 2, p. 177-185, 2012. (SocioEconomicEfficiency102KB)

**Aikpokpodion, P.E., Lajide, L., Aiyesanmi, A.F. Metal fractionation in soils collected from selected cocoa plantations in ogun state, Nigeria. World Applied Sciences Journal, 20 (5), pp. 628-636, 2012. (Diseases&PestsFungicideResidues55KB)

**Aiyesanmi, A.F., Idowu, G.A.  Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria. Environment and Natural Resources, vol. 2,  p. 65-73, 2012 (Diseases&PestsPesticideresidures220KB)

**Aiyesanmi, A.F., Idowu, G.A.  Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Soil of Cocoa Farms in Ondo State Central District, Nigeria. Environment and Natural Resources, vol. 2,  p. 65-73, 2012 (Diseases&PestsPesticideresidures220KB)

**Ambrosio, A.B., do Nascimento, L.C., Oliveira, B.V., Teixeira, P.J., Tiburcio, R.A., Thomazella, D.P., Leme, A.F., Carazzolle, M.F., Vidal, R.O., Mieczkowski, P., Meinhardt, L.W., Pereira, G.A., Cabrera, O.G.  Global analyses of Ceratocystis cacaofunesta mitochondria: From genome to proteome. BMC Genomics, p. 91, 2013 Article in Press. (Diseases&PestsCeratocystisMitochondria2.98KB)

**Amoah, S.K., Osonuga, A., Djankpa, F.T., Osonuga, O.A., Addai, F.K., Affram, K.O., Dennis, E.E.,  Ayettey, A.S.  Prolonged ingestion of dietary cocoa attenuates hemoglobin glycation associated with diabetes mellitus in rats. World Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 7, p. 147-150, 2012. (HumanNutritionDiabetesRats45KB)

**Andrade, B., Souza, C., Góes-Neto, A.  Molecular docking between the RNA polymerase of the Moniliophthora perniciosa mitochondrial plasmid and Rifampicin produces a highly stable complex. Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, p. 15, 2013. Article in Press. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraPolymerase2.21MB)

**Bailey, B.A., Crozier, J., Sicher, R.C., Strem, M.D., Melnick, R., Carazzolle, M.F., Costa, G.G.L., Pereira, G.A.G., Zhang, D., Maximova, S., Guiltinan, M., Meinhardt, L.  Dynamic changes in pod and fungal physiology associated with the shift from biotrophy to necrotrophy during the infection of Theobroma cacao by Moniliophthora roreri. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, vol. 81, pp. 84-96, 2013. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraNecrotrophy761KB)

**Begiato, G.F., Spers, E.E., Castro, L.T., Neves, M.F. Analysis of the agribusiness system and the attractiveness of São Francisco valley for the irrigated cocoa plantations. Custos e Agronegocio, vol. 5 , pp. 55-87, 2009. (Environment&SustainabilityIrrigation159KB)

**Boza, E.J., Irish, B.M., Meerow, A.W., Tondo, C.L., Rodríguez, O.A., Ventura-López, M., Gómez, J.A., Moore, J.M., Zhang, D., Motamayor, J.C., Schnell, R.J. Genetic diversity, conservation, and utilization of Theobroma cacao L.: Genetic resources in the Dominican Republic.  Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 60 (2), pp. 605-619, 2013.(Genomics&PhysiologyGeneticDiversityDominicanRepublic453KB)

**Cuéllar G., O., Guerrero A., G.  Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L.  Revista Mvz Cordoba, vol. 17, p. 3176-3183, 2012. (PostHarvestHuskAntibacteria954KB)

**Dadzie, A.M., Livingstone III, D.S., Opoku, S.Y., Takrama, J., Padi, F., Offei, S.K., Danquah, E.Y., Motamayor, J.C., Schnell, R.J., Kuhn, D.N. Conversion of Microsatellite Markers to Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Markers for Genetic Fingerprinting of Theobroma cacao L.   Journal of Crop Improvement, 27 (2), pp. 215-241, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyGeneticSNP195KB)

**Daghela Bisseleua, H.B., Fotio, D., Yedeb , Missoup, A.D., Vidal, S. Shade Tree Diversity, Cocoa Pest Damage, Yield Compensating Inputs and Farmers’ Net Returns in West Africa. PLoS ONE, 8 (3),no. e56115, 2013. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryYield419KB)

**Da Silva Almeida, R.L., Garófalo Chaves, L.H. Growth of cocoa as a function of water and nitrogen. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2012, 6, pp. 4776-4783, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyNutrition594KB)

**Essegbey, G.O., Ofori-Gyamfi, E. Ghana cocoa industry—An analysis from the innovation system perspective. Technology Investment, vol. 3, p. 276-286, 2012. (SocioEconomicInnovation214KB)

** Evans, H.C. Pod rot of cacao caused by Moniliophthora (Monilia) roreri. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, Surrey, U.K., Phytopathological Papers, No. 24, 1981. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraPodRot3.2MB).

** Fapohunda S. O., Afolayan A. Fermentation of Cocoa Beans and Antimicrobial Potentials of the pod Husk Phytochemicals. J. Phys. Pharm. Adv., 2(3): 158-164, 2012. (PostHarvestHuskPhytochemicals466KB)

**Faturoti, B.O., Madukwe, M.C. Impact of SARO agro allied organic cocoa program in Nigeria. International Journal of AgriScience, vol. 2(11), p. 1026-1035, 2012. (SocioEconomicOrganic171KB)

**Ferreira, L.F., Duarte, K.M., Gomes, L.H., Carvalho, R.S., Leal Junior, G.A., Aguiar, M.M., Armas, R.D., Tavares, F.C. Genetic diversity of polysporic isolates of Moniliophthora perniciosa (Tricholomataceae). Genetics and Molecular Research : GMR, vol. 11 (3), p. 2559-2568, 2012. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraDiversity678KB)

**Gonnety, J.T., Assémien, E.F.L., Guéi, A.M., N’Dri, A.A., Djina, Y., Koné, A.W., Tondoh, J.E. Effect of land-use types on soil enzymatic activities and chemical properties in semi-deciduous forest areas of Central-West Côte d’Ivoire [Effet des types d'utilisation des terres sur les activités enzymatiques et les propriétés chimiques du sol dans les zones forestières semi-décidues du centre-ouest de la Côte D'Ivoire].   Biotechnology, Agronomy and Society and Environment, 16 (4), pp. 478-485, 2012.  (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestry380KB)

**Hernández L., C.E.,  Hernández G., M.  Growth and development of the cupuaçu fruit (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. Ex Spreng.] Schum.) in the western colombian Amazon. Agronomía Colombiana, vol. 30, p. 95-102, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyTheobromaGrandiflora780KB)

**Hidayat, Y., Murtilaksono, K., Sinukaban, N. Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss on Forest-Agriculture Landscape. Jurnal Tanah Tropika, vol. 17, p. 259-266, 2012. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryErosion432KB)

**Junior, M.C., de Assis, S.A., Goes-Neto, A., Duarte, Â., Alves, R.J., Junior, M.C., Taranto, A.G.  Structure-based drug design studies of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphosrylase, a key enzyme for the control of witches’ broom disease.  Chemistry Central Journal, p. 48. Article in Press, 2013. (Diseases&PestsWitchesBroom2.66MB)

**Kanmogne, A.,  Jannot, Y., Nganhou,  J. Description concise et analyse des systèmes utilisés dans la région Sud du Cameroun pour le séchage du cacao. Tropicultura, vol. 30, p. 94-102, 2012. (PostHarvestDrying1MB)

**Kouakou, K., Kébé, B.I., Kouassi, N., Aké, S., Cilas, C., Muller, EGeographical distribution of Cacao swollen shoot virus molecular variability in Côte d’Ivoire. Plant Disease, 96 (10), pp. 1445-1450, 2012. (Diseases&PestsSwollenShootVariability441KB)

**Kroon, L.P.N.M., Brouwer, H., deCock, A.W.A.M., Grovers, F.  The Genus Phytophthora Anno 2012. Phytopathology, vol. 102, p. 348-364, 2012. (Diseases&PestsPhytophthoraOverview537KB)

**Krysiak, W., Adamski, R., Żyżelewicz, D. Factors affecting the color of roasted cocoa bean. J. of Food Quality, article first published online, DOI: 10.1111/jfq.12009, 2013. (PostHarvestRoastingColor1.82MB)

**Lozada, B.S., Herrera, L.V., Perea, J.A., Stashenko, E., Escobar, P.  In vitro effect of essential oils of three lippia species on moniliophthora roreri (Cif. and Par.) Evans et al., causative agent of moniliasis of cocoa [Theobroma cacao L.) [Efecto in vitro de aceites esenciales de tres especies de lippia sobre roreri (Cif. y Par.) Evans et al., agente causante de la moniliasis del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.)]. Acta Agron., vol. 61, pp. 102-110, 2012. (Diseases&PestsMoniliophthoraAntifunal147KB)

**Martin, F.N., Abad, Z.G., Balci, Y., Ivors, K. Identification and detection of Phytophthora: Reviewing our progress, identifying our needs. Plant Disease, vol. 96, p. 1080-1103, 2012. (Diseases&PestsPhytophthoraReview1.49MB)

**Mesike, C.S. Impact of government agricultural policies on exports of cocoa and rubber in Nigeria. Versita, vp;/ 45/4, p. 184-188, 2012. (Socio-EconomicExport301KB)

**Motilal, L.A., Zhang, D., Umaharan, P., Boccara, M., Mischke, S., Sankar, A., Meinhardt, L. Elucidation of genetic identity and population structure of cacao germplasm within an international cacao genebank. Plant Genetic Resources, 10 (3): 232-241 Available on CJO 2012 doi:10.1017/S1479262112000305, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyInternationalGenebank937KB)

**Nehlig, A. The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanols and its influence on cognitive performance. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 75, p. 716 – 727, 2013. (HumanNutritionNeuroprotective948KB)

**O’Doherty, D.C.,  Zoll, J.J.  Forcipomyia hardyi (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a Potential Pollinator of Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Flowers in Hawaii. Proc. Hawaiian Entomological Soc., vol. 44, p. 79-81, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyPollinator942KB)

**Ogunwole, O.M., Adeoye, G.O., Ogeh, J.S. Journal Studies on Nutrient Release Pattern of Neem Fortified Cocoa Pod Husk Fertilizer in an Alfisol.  Jurnal Tanah Tropika, vol. 17, p. 129-134. (Genomics&PhysiologyNeemFertilizer38KB)

**Ostertag, L.M., Kroon, P.A., Wood, S., Horgan, G.W., Cienfuegos-Jovellanos, E., Saha, S., DuthieG.G., de Roos, B.  Flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and white chocolate improve acute measures of platelet function in a gender-specific way—a randomized-controlled human intervention trial. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2012, 00, 1–12 DOI 10.1002/mnfr.201200283 1. (HumanNutritionPlateletFunction1MB)

**Oyakhilomen, O., Omadachi. U.O., Zibah, R.G. Cocoa production – Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund nexus in Nigeria. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, vol.  9, 9 p., 2012. (SocioEconomicCredit89KB)

**Pitopang, R. Impact of forest disturbance on the structure and composition of vegetation in tropical rainforest of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, vol. 13, p. 178-189, 2012. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryDisturbance379KB)

**Ramle, K., Suandi, T., Maimunah, I., Krauss, S.E.  Determinants of successful technology adoption among Malaysian cocoa farmers.  Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 20 (SUPPL.), pp. 175-184, 2012. (SocioEconomicTechnologyAdoption328KB)

**Rangel-Fajardo, M.A., Zavaleta-Mancera, H.A., Córdova-Téllez, L., López-Andrade, A.P., Delgado-Alvarado, A., Vidales-Fernández, I., Villegas-Monter, A.  Anatomy and histochemistry of the Mexican cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) seed [Anatomía e histoquímica de la semilla del cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) criollo mexicano]. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, vol. 35 (3), p. 189-197, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologySeedAnatomy2.52MB)

**Riley, E.P., Tolbert, B., Farida W.R. Nutritional content explains the attractiveness of cacao to crop raiding tonkean macaques.  Current Zoology(formerly Acta Zoologica Sinica), vol. 59(2): 160 – 169, 2013. (Diseases&PestsMacaques1.22MB)

**Ristaino, J.B.  A Lucid Key to the Common Species of Phytophthora.  Plant Disease, vol. 96, p. 8967-903, 2012. (Diseases&PestsPhytophthoraIdentification528KB)

**Sisterson, M.S., Stenger, D.C. Roguing with replacement in perennial crops: Conditions for successful disease management. Phytopathology, 103 (2), pp. 117-128, 2013. (Diseases&PestsRoguingSwollenShoot776KB)

**Soh, P.T., Ndoumbè-Nkeng, M., Sache, I., Nguema, E.P.N., Gwet, H., Chadœuf, J. Development stage-dependent susceptibility of cocoa fruit to pod rot caused by Phytophthora megacarya. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 135 (2), pp. 363-370, 2013. (Diseases&PestsPodRot246KB)

**Sokpor, G., Kwaku Addai, F.,  Kwasi Gyasi, R., Agyei Bugyei, K., ; John Ahenkorah, J., ; Hottor, B.  Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, vol. 2, p. 166-187, 2012. (HumanNutritionAntioxidantAlcoholToxicity607KB)

**Tiralla, N., Panferov, O., Knohl, A.  Allometric relationships of frequently used shade tree species in cacao agroforestry systems in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Agroforestry Systems, pp. 1-14, 2013. Article in Press. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryShadeTree469KB)

**Trognitz, B., Cros, E., Assemat, S., Davrieux, F., Forestier-Chiron, N., Ayestas, E., Kuant, A., Scheldeman, X., Hermann, M.  Diversity of Cacao Trees in Waslala, Nicaragua: Associations between Genotype Spectra, Product Quality and Yield Potential. Plos one, vol. 8 (1); e54079, 2013. (Genomics&PhysiologyDiversity2.55MB)

**Utro, F., Cornejo, O.E., Livingstone, D., Motamayor, J.C., Parida, L. ARG-based genome-wide analysis of cacao cultivars. Bmc bioinformatics; 2012; 13 (Suppl. 19); Article No.: S17. (Genomics&PhysiologyGeneticRecombination2.55MB)

**Yang, J.Y., Scascitelli, M., Motilal, L.A., Sveinsson, S., Engels, J.M.M., Kane, N.C., Dempewolf, H., Zhang, D., Maharaj, K., Cronk, Q.C.B. Complex origin of Trinitario-type Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae) from Trinidad and Tobago revealed using plastid genomics. Tree Genetics and Genomes, pp. 1-12. Article in Press. (Genomics&PhysiologyOriginPlastid606KB)

**Complete articles are available on the WCF website in the Research Library. These articles are accessible to the cacao research community for research purposes only. This bibliography was developed with assistance from the National Agricultural Library, Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.

In developing countries access to expanded free literature may be explored by going to this link.

Contributions to the WCF Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or News items will be included in the next update.

Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to

 PUBLICATIONS SUBMITTED FOR THE WCF VIRTUAL LIBRARY by Eduardo Somarriba, C.A.T.I.E. (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Turrialba, Costa Rica). Articles with asterisks have been recently added to the virtual library – others were added previously.

**Ramos  Serrano, R.M.  2011. Estudio de la diversidad de insectos polinizadordes en sistemas agroforestales de cacao y su relacion con la productivad y diversidad de especies del dosel.  [Study of the diversity of cocoa pollinators and cocoa yields in relation to plant species diversity in the shade canopy of cocoa agroforestry systems]  Tesis Ing. Agronomo, Universidad de San Pedro Sula. 73 p.  Spanish thesis with English summary. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryYield1.43MB)

**Rousseau, G.X.; Deheuvels,O.; Rodriguez Arias,I.; Somarriba,E.  2012   Indicating soil quality in cacao-based agroforestry systems and old-growth forests: The potential of soil macrofauna assemblage.  [El uso de comunidades de macrofauna como indicadores de la calidad del suelo en sistemas agroforestales con cacao y bosques secundarios maduros]  Ecological Indicators 23 (2012) 535–543.  Inglés con resumen en español. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestrySoil797KB)

**Ryan, D.; Bright, G.A.; Somarriba, E.  2009.  Damage and yield change in cocoa crops due to harvesting of timber shade trees in Talamanca, Costa Rica. [Daños debido a la cosecha de árboles maderables de sombra y efectos sobre el rendimiento del cacao en Talamanca, Costa Rica]  Agroforestry Systems 77: 97-106. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryYield228KB)

**Sáenz Tijerino, Y.I. 2012.  Aporte del cacaotal en la economía y nutrición familiar en Waslala, Nicaragua. [Contribution of the cacaotal to farm economics and family nutrition in Waslala, Nicaragua]Spanish with English summary.  Tesis Mag. Sc. CATIE ,Turrialba, Costa Rica  72 p. (SocioEconomicFamilyNutrition1.82MB)

Schnell, R..J.; Kuhn, D.N.; Brown, J.S.; Olano, C.T.; Phillips-Mora, W.; Amores F.M. & Motamayor J.C.  2007.  Development of a Marker Assisted Selection Program for Cacao.  [Desarrollo de un programa de selección de cacao asistido por marcadores moleculares].  Inglés.  Phytopathology 97 (12): 1664-1669.

Segura, M; Andrade, H.J.  2008.  ¿Cómo construir modelos alométricos de volumen, biomasa o carbono de especies leñosas perennes?.  [How to develop volume, biomass or carbon allometric models for woody perennials?].  Spanish with English summary. Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 46   p. 89-96.

Segura, M; Andrade, H.J.  2008.  ¿Cómo estimar rápidamente el carbono almacenado en la biomasa aérea de los sistemas agroforestales indígenas de Talamanca, Costa Rica? [How to estimate carbon stored in the aboveground biomass of  indigenous agroforestry systems of Talamanca, Costa Rica. ].  Spanish with English summary.   Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 46   p. 97-103.

Solano Sánchez, W.  2008.  Embriogénesis somática en clones superiores de cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) obtenidos en el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético del CATIE. [Somatic embryogenesis in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) superior clones obtained at the Genetic Improvement Program of CATIE].  Spanish with English summary. Tesis Mag. Sc. Turrialba, Costa Rica, CATIE.   92 p.

Somarriba, E.  2007.  Cocoa and shade trees: production, diversification and environmental services.  [Cocoa y árboles de sombra: producción, diversificación y servicios ambientales].  English.  Gro-cocoa (RU). 11  p. 1-4.

**Somarriba, E.  2009.  Planificación agroforestal de fincas. [ Agroforestry farm planning] Materiales de Enseñanza CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. No. 49.  p.100. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryFarmPlanningManual1.4MB)

Somarriba, E.; Andrade, H.J.; Segura, M.; Villalobos, M.  2008.  ¿Cómo fijar carbono atmosférico, certificarlo y venderlo para complementar los ingresos de productores indígenas en Costa Rica?.  [How to fix, certify and trade Carbon to increase income in indigenous cocoa farms in Costa Rica].  Spanish with English summary. Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 46  p. 81-88.

Somarriba, E., Beer, John.  2011 Productivity of Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems with timber or legume service shade trees.  [Productividad de los sistemas agroforestales Theobroma cacao con árboles de sombra de árboles maderables o leguminosas de servicio]  Agroforestry Systems 81 (2): 109-121.

**Somarriba Chávez, E.; Cerda Bustillos, R.; Astorga Domian, C.; Quesada Chaverri, F.; Vásquez Morera, N.  2010.  Reproducción sexual del cacao.  Serie Técnica. Materiales de Extensión. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 1.  p. 48. (Genomics&PhysiologySexualReproductionManualSpanish6.9MB)

**Somarriba Chávez, E.; Cerda Bustillos, R.; Astorga Domian, C.; Quesada Chaverri, F.; Vásquez Morera, N.  2010.  Reproducción sexual del cacao.  [ in English: Sexual Reproduction of Cacao].  Serie Técnica. Materiales de Extensión. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 1.  p. 48. (Genomics&PhysiologySexualReproductionEnglish6.5MB)

**Somarriba Chávez, E.; Quesada Chaverri, F.; Orozco Aguilar, L.; Cerda Bustillos, R.; Villalobos Rodríguez, M.; Orozco Estrada, S.; Astorga Domian, C.; Deheuvels, O.; Say Chávez, E.; Villegas Cáceres, R.  2011.  La sombra del cacao. Serie Técnica. Materiales de Extensión CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 8. 45 p. (Genomics&PhysiologyShade24.7MB)

**Somarriba Chávez, E.; Quesada Chaverri, F.; Orozco Aguilar, L.; Cerda Bustillos, R.; Villalobos Rodríguez, M.; Orozco Estrada, S.; Astorga Domian, C.; Deheuvels, O.; Say Chávez, E.; Villegas Cáceres, R.  2011.  La sombra del cacao. [in English: The shade canopy of cacao]  Serie Técnica. Materiales de Extensión CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 8. 45 p. (Genomics&PhysiologyShadeNo.5English24.7MB)

**Somarriba Chávez, E.; Quesada Chaverri, F.; Villalobos Rodríguez, M. 2011.  La poda de producción del cacao en seis pasos. Serie Técnica. Informe Técnico CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 6. 28p. (Genomics&PhysiologyPruningNo.6Spanish10.1MB)

**Somarriba Chávez, E.; Quesada Chaverri, F.; Villalobos Rodríguez, M. 2011.  La poda de producción del cacao en seis pasos. [in English: Pruning for cacao production: the six steps.] Serie Técnica. Informe Técnico CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 6. 28p. (Genomics&PhysiologyPruningNo.6English4.95MB)

**Somarriba, E; Cerda, R.; Astorga, C; Villalobos, M;  Say, E.; Prado, J.; Orozco, L.; Vásquez, N.  2010.  El Cacaotal mejorado. Cartilla para familias cacaoteras de Centroamérica. [Improved cocoa plantations.  Manual for cocoa families in Central America]  Serie Técnica. Materiales de extensión. CATIE, Turrialba,Costa Rica No. 3, 22p. Socio-EconomicImprovedFamilyFarmingNo.3Spanish893KB)

**Somarriba, E; Cerda, R.;  Astorga, C; Villalobos, M;  Say, E.; Prado, J.; Orozco, L.; Vásquez, N.  2010.  El Cacaotal mejorado. Guía del facilitador.  [Improved cocoa plantations. The facilitator’s guide.] Serie Técnica. Materiales de extensión No. 2.  CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. 34 p. (SocioEconomicImprovedCacaoFarmingNo.2Spanish1.56MB)

**Somarriba E, Cerda R, Astorga C, Quesada F, Vásquez N, Orozco L.  2010.  Injertos y otras técnicas de propagación del cacao. Serie Técnica, Materiales de Extensión #4. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.  48 p. (Genomics&PhysiologyGraftingNo.4Spanish12.5MB)

**Somarriba E, Cerda R, Astorga C, Quesada F, Vásquez N, Orozco L.  2010.  Injertos y otras técnicas de propagación del cacao. [English: Grafting and other methods for the asexual propagation of cacao]  Serie Técnica, Materiales de Extensión #4. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.  48 p. (Genomics&PhysiologyGraftingNo.4English12.5MB)

**Somarriba, E.; Quesada, F.  2009.  Planificación agroforestal de fincas: manual para familias productoras. Serie Técnica. Manual Técnico.  CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. No. 89.  46p. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryFarmPlanningManualNo.89Spanish5.7MB)

**Somarriba, E.; Quesada, F.  2009.  Planificación agroforestal de fincas: manual para familias productoras. [English: Agroforestry farm planning: manual for farming families] Serie Técnica. Manual Técnico.  CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. No. 89.  46p. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryFarmPlanningManualNo.89English5.25MB)

Somarriba, E.; Suárez, A.; Calero, W.; Botina, A.; Chalaca, D.  2008.  Aprovechamiento, rendimiento maderable y carbono perdido en los residuos de Cordia alliodora de regeneración natural en cacaotales (Theobroma cacao) y bananales (Musa AAA cv. Gros Michel) de Talamanca, Costa Rica.  [Timber harvest and yield, and loss of Carbon in cocoa and banana agroforestry plantations in Talamanca, Costa Rica].  Spanish with English summary.  Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 46.  p. 34-39.

Somarriba, E.; Villalobos, M.; Sucre, L.; López, M.; Torres, F.; Torres, A.; Rodríguez, K.   2008.  El Proyecto Captura de Carbono y desarrollo de mercados ambientales en cacaotales y otros sistemas agroforestales indígenas en Talamanca, Costa Rica.  [The Project: Carbon capture and environmental markets in cocoa and other land uses in indigenous Talamanca, Costa Rica].  Spanish with English summary.  Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE).  Vol. 46  p. 8-13.

**Soto Quiroga, G.  2009.   Contribución al conocimiento del paisaje de cacaotales, como hábitat para el mantenimiento de la diversidad de herpetofauna en Talamanca, Costa Rica.  [Contribution to the knowledge of the landscape of cocoa trees, such as habitat for the maintenance of the diversity of herpetofauna in Talamanca, Costa Rica] Tesis Mag. Sc. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica 57 p. Spanish with English summary. (Environment&SustainabilityBiodiversity889KB)

**Soto, G.; Descamps, P. 2011  Certificación orgánica paso a paso: manual para familias productoras [Organic certification step by step: manual for farmers]  Serie Técnica, Materiales de Extensión 7.  CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.28 p. (Socio-EconomicOrganicCertificationNo.7.1.77MB)

**Suárez Islas, A.  2008.  ¿Cuántos y cuáles árboles de laurel (Cordia alliodora) se pueden cosechar en los cacaotales y bananales indígenas de Talamanca, Costa Rica?  [How many and which laurel (Cordia alliodora) trees to harvest in cocoa and banana plantations of Talamanca, Costa Rica?].  Spanish with English summary.  Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 46  p. 104-109. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestryCordia172KB)

Valdivieso, R.; Somarriba, E.; Galloway, G.; Vázquez, W.; Kass, D.  1998.  Crecimiento del laurel (Cordia alliodora) en sistemas agroforestales de Talamanca, Costa Rica y Changuinola, Panamá.  [Growth of laurel (Cordia alliodora) in agroforestry systems in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Changuinola, Panama].  Spanish with English summary.  Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 5 (17-18)    p. 54-58.

**Villalobos, M.; Acuña, K. 2009   Una experiencia de manejo ambiental en cacao en los territorios indígenas Bribrí y Cabécar de Talamanca-Costa Rica: el caso del Proyecto Captura de Carbono.  [An experience of environmental management in cocoa in the indigenous territories Bribrí and Cabécar Talamanca-Costa Rica: the case of the carbon capture project]  Serie Técnica. Boletín Técnico. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica.No. 40.  p. 38. (Environment&SustainabilityCarbonCapture7.02MB)

**Villalobos Rodriguez, M., Orozco Estrada, S.  2012  Calidad de Cacao en Centroamérica: Un vistazo a la situación en 2009.    [Cocoa quality in Central America: A look at the situation in 2009.] Serie Técnica. Reuniones Técnicas CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. no. 17.  87p. (Post-HarvestQualitySpanish3.16MB)

Whelan, M.; Stoian, D.; Wulfhorst, J.D.; Somarriba, E; Soto, G.; Prins, K.  2008.  Medios de vida y dinámica del uso del suelo en los Territorios Indígenas Bribri y Cabécar de Talamanca, Costa Rica.   [Livelihoods and land use dynamics in the Bribri and Cabecar indigenous territories, Talamanca, Costa Rica]. Spanish with English summary.  Agroforestería en las Américas (CATIE). Vol. 46 p.51-56.

Winowiecki, Leigh.  2008.  Soil Biogeochemical Patterns in the Talamanca Foothills, Costa Rica:  Local Soil Knowledge and Implications for Agroecosystems.  [Patrones biogeoquímicos en el pie de monte de Talamanca: conocimiento local de suelos e implicaciones para los agroecosistemas].  English with Spanish summary.  Thesis (PhD), Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA, 172 p.

Zhang D.; July W.;  Johnson ES.; Somarriba E.; Phillips-Mora W.; Astorga C.; Mischke S.; Meinhardt L.W.  2011.  Genetic diversity and spatial structure in a new distinct Theobroma cacao L. population in Bolivia. [Diversidad genética y estructura espacial en una nueva población de Theobroma cacao L. en Bolivia] Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. DOI 10.1007/s10722-011-9680.

Zhang, D.; Mischke, S.; Johnson, E.S.; Phillips Mora,W. and Meinhardt, L.  2009   Molecular characterization of an international cacao collection using microsatellite markers. [Caracterización molecular de una colección de cacao internacional utilizando marcadores microsatélites]. Tree Genetics & Genomes Volume 5, Number 1, 1-10.

These categorized articles are available at the indicated affiliation address:


Acheampong, K., Hadley, P., Daymond, A.J. Photosynthetic activity and early growth of four cacao genotypes as influenced by different shade regimes under west african dry and wet season conditions. (2013) Experimental Agriculture, 49 (1), pp. 31-42. AFFILIATIONS: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, PO Box 8, Akim Tafo, Ghana; KEYWORDS: Physiology; Biology

Adu-Gyamfi, R., Wetten, A. Cryopreservation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) somatic embryos by vitrification.(2012) Cryo-Letters, 33 (6), pp. 494-505. AFFILIATION: School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6AS, United Kingdom;  KEYWORD: Biology

Noah, A.M., Niemenak, N., Sunderhaus, S., Haase, C., Omokolo, D.N., Winkelmann, T., Braun, H.-P. Comparative proteomic analysis of early somatic and zygotic embryogenesis in Theobroma cacao L. (2013) Journal of Proteomics, 78, pp. 123-133. AFFILIATIONS: Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Biological Science, Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 47, Yaounde, Cameroon; AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Embryogenesis;  Metabolic pathways;  Proteomics; Biology 

Padi, F.K., Adu-Gyamfi, P., Akpertey, A., Arthur, A., Ofori, A. Differential response of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) families to field establishment stress. (2013) Plant Breeding, Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana Box 8, New-Tafo, Akim Ghana. KEYWORDS: Drought;  General combining ability;  Seedling establishment;  Seedling survival; Biology

Rojas, L.F., Florez, C., Atehortúa, L., Gil, A., Londoño, J. Application of a new method to obtain cell biomass of Theobroma cacao seeds for metabolites production in flasks and bioreactor cultures.(2012) Acta Horticulturae, 961, pp. 435-440. AFFILIATIONS: Universidad de Antioquia Grupo Biotecnología, Sede de Investigación Universitaria (SIU), AA 1226 Medellín, Colombia; KEYWORDS: Cell suspension cultures;  Fatty acids;  Pectinase;  Polyphenols; Biology


Aragon, E., Rivera, C., Korpelainen, H., Rojas, A., Elomaa, P., Valkonen, J.P.T. Genetic diversity of native cultivated cacao accessions (Theobroma cacao L.) in Nicaragua. (2012) Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation, 10 (3), pp. 254-257. AFFILIATIONS: Centro Nicaragüense de Investigación Agropecuaria y Biotecnología (CNIAB), Instituto Nicaragüense de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Km 14.1 North Highway, Managua, Nicaragua.  KEYWORDS: farmers’ and breeders’ accessions;  genetic differentiation;  genetic diversity;  microsatellite;  Phytophthora palmivora;  resistance; Genetics


Flores, A.C., Pamphile, J.A., Sarragiotto, M.H., Clemente, E. Production of 3-nitropropionic acid by endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla isolated from Trichilia elegans A. JUSS ssp. elegans and evaluation of biological activity (2013) World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, pp. 1-10. Article in Press.AFFILIATIONS: Laboratory of Microbial Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Genetics and Cell Biology (DBC), State University of Maringá (UEM), Maringá, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Bioactive compounds;  Chemical characterization;  Guignardia citricarpa;  Moniliophthora perniciosa;  P. longicolla endophyte;  Secondary metabolites; Disease/Pest

Santos, R.M.F., Silva, S.D.V.M., Sena, K., Micheli, F., Gramacho, K.P. Kinetics and Histopathology of the Cacao-Ceratocystis cacaofunesta Interaction. (2013) Tropical Plant Biology, 6 (1), pp. 37-45. AFFILIATIONS: Cacao Research Center, CEPLAC/CEPEC, 45600-970 Itabuna, BA, Brazil;AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Ceratocystis wilt;  Germination;  Host defense;  Microscopy;  Resistance; Disease/Pests

Sabatier, R., Meyer, K., Wiegand, K., Clough, Y. Non-linear effects of pesticide application on biodiversity-driven ecosystem services and disservices in a cacao agroecosystem: A modeling study. (2013) Basic and Applied Ecology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Ecosystem Modelling, Büsgen Institut, Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; KEYWORDS: Agroecosystem;  Cacao;  Dynamic model;  Ecosystem services;  Pesticide;  Pollination; Disease/Pest

Pinheiro, A.A.F., Taranto, A.G., Duarte, A.A., Neto, A.G., Da Hora Júnior, B.T., Pereira, G.A.G., Dos Santos Júnior, M.C., De Assis, S.A. Homology modeling studies of beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthase of Moniliophthora perniciosa. (2012) International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 112 (20), pp. 3356-3363. AFFILIATIONS: Health Department, Enzymology and Fermentation Technology Laboratory, State University of Feira de Santana (UEFS), Universitária Boulevard-Km 03, BR 116-BA, Feira de Santana, BA-44031-460, Brazil;KEYWORDS: beta(1,3)- D -glucan synthase; glycosyltransferase;  homology modeling;  molecular targets;  Moniliophthora perniciosa; Disease/Pest


Robiglio, V., Lescuyer, G., Cerutti, P.O. From Farmers to Loggers: The Role of Shifting Cultivation Landscapes in Timber Production in Cameroon. (2013) Small-scale Forestry, 12 (1), pp. 67-85. AFFILIATIONS: International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins (ASB), P.O. Box 2008, Messa, Yaoundé, Cameroon; KEYWORDS: Cocoa agroforests;  Domestic timber;  Fallow management;  Farmers’ livelihoods;  Small-scale logging; Environment


Ofori-Boateng, C., Lee, K.T. The potential of using cocoa pod husks as green solid base catalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel: Effects of biodiesel on engine performance.(2013) Chemical Engineering Journal, 220, pp. 395-401. AFFILIATIONS: Lignocellulosic Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.  KEYWORDS: Biodiesel;  Cocoa pod husk;  Engine performance;  Heterogeneous catalyst;  Potash; Postharvest

Hale, S.E., Alling, V., Martinsen, V., Mulder, J., Breedveld, G.D., Cornelissen, G. The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars. (2013) Chemosphere, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), P.O. Box 3930, Ullevål Stadion, NO-0806 Oslo, Norway; KEYWORDS: Ammonium;  Biochar;  Desorption;  Nitrate;  Phosphate;  Sorption; Postharvest

Idi, A., Salleh, M.M., Ibrahim, Z., Mohamad, S.E. Pretreatment of cocoa waste for bioethanol production using ionic liquid (2012) Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences and Engineering), 59 (SUPPL.1), pp. 49-56. AFFILIATIONS: Faculty of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia. KEYWORDS: Biomass;  Cellulose;  Hemicelluloses;  Lignin;  Lignocelluloses; Postharvest

Oscar Cuéllar, G., Quím, T., Gloria Guerrero, A. Antibacterial activity of the cacao bean husk, Theobroma cacao L. [Actividad antibacteriana de la cáscara de cacao, Theobroma cacao L.] (2012) Revista MVZ Cordoba, 17 (3), pp. 3176-3183.AFFILIATIONS: Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Facultad de Tecnología, Escuela de Tecnología Química. Grupo de Oleoquímica, Pereira, Colombia; KEYWORDS: Antibacterial activity;  Bacillus cereus;  Streptococcus agalactiae; Postharvest


Gockowski, J., Afari-Sefa, V., Sarpong, D.B., Osei-Asare, Y.B., Agyeman, N.F. Improving the productivity and income of Ghanaian cocoa farmers while maintaining environmental services: what role for certification? (2013) International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP), International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), House No. 18, Okine Street, East Legon Ambassadorial Area, P. O. Box Private Mail Bag L-56, Legon, Accra, Ghana; KEYWORDS: cocoa agroforestry;  cost-benefit analysis;  ecoagriculture;  ecosystem services;  fertilizer subsidy;  intensification;  land sharing;  land sparing;  sustainable production; Economics

Caldas, M.M., Perz, S. “Agro-terrorism? The causes and consequences of the appearance of witch’s broom disease in cocoa plantations of southern Bahia, Brazil” (2013) Geoforum, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Geography, Kansas State University, 118 Seaton Hall, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA; KEYWORDS: Agro-terrorism;  Biocrime;  Brazil;  Cocoa economy;  Social marginalization; Economics

Washburn, D.K., Washburn, W.N., Shipkova, P.A.

Cacao consumption during the 8th century at Alkali Ridge, southeastern Utah (2013) Journal of Archaeological Science, 40 (4), pp. 2007-2013. AFFILIATIONS: American Section, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States; AUTHOR KEYWORDS: Detection of Theobroma cacao;  Migration model;  Pueblo I ceramics;  Symmetry analysis of design; Economics


Baggott, M.J., Childs, E., Hart, A.B., de Bruin, E., Palmer, A.A., Wilkinson, J.E., de Wit, H. Psychopharmacology of theobromine in healthy volunteers. (2013) Psychopharmacology, pp. 1-10. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: University of Chicago, Chicago, United States; KEYWORDS: Caffeine;  Cognitive;  Genetics;  Health;  Subjective;  Theobromine

Calatayud, M., López-de-Dicastillo, C., López-Carballo, G., Vélez, D., Hernández Muñoz, P., Gavara, R. Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.(2013) Food Chemistry, 139 (1), pp. 51-58. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Contamination Lab, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, IATA-CSIC, Av. Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Spain; KEYWORDS: Active packaging;  Antimicrobial film;  Antioxidant release;  Caco-2 cells;  Health

Cordero-Herrera, I., Martín, M.A., Bravo, L., Goya, L., Ramos, S. Cocoa flavonoids improve insulin signalling and modulate glucose production via AKT and AMPK in HepG2 cells. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research,Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Metabolism and Nutrition Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) Madrid Spain; KEYWORDS: Epicatechin;  Glucose production;  HepG2 cells;  Insulin signalling pathway; Health

Ferruzzi, M.G., Bordenave, N., Hamaker, B.R. Does flavor impact function? Potential consequences of polyphenol-protein interactions in delivery and bioactivity of flavan-3-ols from foods. (2012) Physiology and Behavior, 107 (4), pp. 591-597. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science, Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, 745 Agriculture Mall Dr., West Lafayette, IN, 47906, United States; KEYWORDS: Astringency;  Binding;  Bioaccessibility;  Bioavailability;  Flavan-3-ols;  Polyphenols;  Health

Gu, Y., Yu, S., Lambert, J.D. Dietary cocoa ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in high fat-fed mice. (2013) European Journal of Nutrition, pp. 1-10. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 332 Food Science Building, University Park, 16802, United States; KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Inflammation;  Obesity;  Polyphenols;  Theobroma cacao; Health

Hristova, K., Nakaoka, T., Otsuka, K., Fedacko, J., Singh, R., Singh, R.B., de Meester, F., Wilczynska, A., Wilson, D.W. Perspectives on chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and cognitive function. (2012) Open Nutraceuticals Journal, 5 (1), pp. 207-212. AFFILIATIONS: University National Heart Hospital, Department of Noninvasive Functional Diagnostic and Imaging, Sofia, Bulgaria; KEYWORDS: Antioxidants;  Cognitive function;  Dementia;  Diet;  Flavonoids;  Flavonols;  Hypertension;  Nutrition;  Stroke; Health

Hüttemann, M., Lee, I., Perkins, G.A., Britton, S.L., Koch, L.G., Malek, M.H.(-)-Epicatechin is associated with increased angiogenic and mitochondrial signalling in the hindlimb of rats selectively bred for innate low running capacity. (2013) Clinical Science, 124 (11), pp. 663-674. AFFILIATIONS: Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, United States; KEYWORDS: Dark chocolate;  Epicatechin;  Natural compound;  Nutrition;  Supplementation; Health

Oleaga, C., Ciudad, C.J., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Noé, V. Cocoa flavanol metabolites activate HNF-3β, Sp1, and NFY-mediated transcription of apolipoprotein AI in human cells. (2013) Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy University of Barcelona Barcelona Spain; KEYWORDS: ApoAI;  Nutrigenomics;  Polyphenols; Health

Pereira-Caro, G., Borges, G., Nagai, C., Jackson, M.C., Yokota, T., Crozier, A., Ashihara, H. Profiles of phenolic compounds and purine alkaloids during the development of seeds of Theobroma cacao cv. Trinitario.(2013) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61 (2), pp. 427-434. AFFILIATIONS: College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. AUTHOR KEYWORDS: anthocyanins;  cacao seed development;  flavan-3-ols;  flavonols;  N-phenylpropenoyl amino acids;  proanthocyanidins;  purine alkaloids; Health

Pina-Pérez, M.C., Martínez-López, A., Rodrigo, D. Cocoa powder as a natural ingredient revealing an enhancing effect to inactivate Cronobacter sakazakii cells treated by Pulsed Electric Fields in infant milk formula.(2013) Food Control, 32 (1), pp. 87-92. AFFILIATIONS: IATA-CSIC, Dpto. Conservación y Calidad de los Alimentos, Avda. Agustin Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia, Spain;  KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Cronobacter sakazakii;  Hurdle technology;  Natural antimicrobial agents;  Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF); Health

Radák, Z., Silye, G., Bartha, C., Jakus, J., Stefanovits-Bányai, E., Atalay, M., Marton, O., Koltai, E. The effects of cocoa supplementation, caloric restriction, and regular exercise, on oxidative stress markers of brain and memory in the rat model.(2013) Food and Chemical Toxicology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Research Institute for Sport Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; KEYWORDS: Brain;  Caloric restriction;  Cocoa;  Exercise;  Free radicals;  Oxidative stress; Health

Smith, D.F. Benefits of flavanol-rich cocoa-derived products for mental well-being: A review. (2013) Journal of Functional Foods, 5 (1), pp. 10-15. AFFILIATIONS: Center for Psychiatric Research, Psychiatric Hospital of Aarhus University, Risskov, Denmark. KEYWORDS: Antidepressant;  Brain imaging;  Dark chocolate;  Flavanol;  Mood disorders;  Natural products; Health

Van Dam, R.M., Naidoo, N., Landberg, R. Dietary flavonoids and the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases: Review of recent findings. (2013) Current Opinion in Lipidology, 24 (1), pp. 25-33. AFFILIATIONS: Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, MD3, 16 Medical Drive, Singapore 117597, Singapore; KEYWORDS: anthocyanidins;  catechins;  flavan-3-ols;  flavonoids;  hesperidin; Health

Contributions to the WCF Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or News items will be included in the next  update.

Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to

Prepared by Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor – April 1, 2013.