Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT: 

Cocoa and Climate Change.  The following is the first attempt to address the issue of climate change by providing links to several sources of information:

General:

UNDP  Climate Change Country Profiles: http://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/research/climate/projects/undp-cp/

Global Warming and Agriculture: Impact Estimates by Country, William R. Cline (2007: http://www.cgdev.org/doc/books/Cline%20global%20warming/Chapter%204.pdf

World Bank country profiles developed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), the Global Support Program of the Climate Investment Funds, and the Climate Change Team of the Environment Department of the World Bank: http://sdwebx.worldbank.org/climateportalb/home.cfm?page=country_profile

“Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007” Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)

Climate change impacts on cacao:

Effects

Climate Change, Agricultural Adaptation and Fair-trade: Identifying the Challenges and Opportunities” (2010) 

The main threat to cocoa production posed by climate change lies in the increased susceptibility of cacao trees to drought. This is a particular concern in West Africa where the adverse effects of high variability in seasonal rainfall patterns is already a constraint.

The Effects of Climate Change on Cocoa Production and Vulnerability Assessment in Nigeria” A.S. Oyekale , M.B. Bolaji and O.W. Olowa   (2009)

Cacao is highly sensitive to changes in climate from hours of sunshine to rainfall and application of water, soil condition and particularly to temperature due to effects on evapotranspiration. Climate changes could also alter stages of rates of development of pests and pathogens, modify host resistance and results in changes in physiology of host pathogen or pest interaction and this altered cocoa yields and resulted to crop loses which, will impact socio-economic variables such as farm income, farm level decision making, marketability and farmers’ livelihoods

Adaptation

Determinants of climate change adaptation among cocoa farmers in southwest Nigeria” (2012) 

The impacts of climate change as related to cocoa agriculture is its adverse influence on cocoa yields through the popular black pod disease. Addressing the menace is greatly reducing farmers’ profit. The onus therefore rests on government to provide adequate sensitization on impact mitigation mechanisms as may be required by the cocoa farmers.

Cocoa industry must adapt to climate change – study” George Fominyen (2011)

Peter Läderach, lead scientist, said plant scientists must breed new crop varieties adapted to the warmer conditions associated with climate change, and farmers should develop new crop management techniques to survive the coming climate shifts.

 “Vulnerability and adaptation assessment under the Netherlands climate change studies assistance programme phase 2 (nccsap2)” G. J. Anim-Kwapong & E. B. Frimpong

NCAP Ghana: Assessment of Agriculture Sector” (2011)

Rehabilitate inactive cocoa farms; reform financial and institutional framework; promote shaded cocoa farming; develop drought contingency plans.

Predicting the Impact of Climate Change on the Cocoa-Growing Regions in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire” (2011)

For farmers: implement new technologies available mainly for drought-tolerant germplasm and irrigation systems; efficient cocoa shade management (Isaac et al., 2007), that can contribute to buffering temperatures; Farm diversification with alternative crops such as orange, oil palm and cashew (Anim-Kwapong and Frimpong, 2005) for areas that will become unsuitable in the future.

For researchers: Research on drought-tolerant cocoa germplasm and irrigation systems; research on the effects of climate change on crops including the implementation of technological alternatives to explore better environmental and economic options;  Identify alternative crops for areas where cocoa will become unsuitable.

For governments: Encourage the production of cocoa through access to credit for cocoa farmers; Promote access to alternative agricultural practices and technologies through agricultural extension programs; Implement the awareness of climate change, by promoting and publishing research projects on climate change through campaigns of public information through the national communications to the UNFCCC; and

Support research and development on appropriate technologies to help farmers adapt to climate change.

Climate Change, Agricultural Adaptation and Fair-trade: Identifying the Challenges and Opportunities” (2010) Download the file here

More use of shade trees

Effect of climate change on cocoa yield: a case of cocoa research institute (crin) farm, oluyole local government ibadan oyo state” Ajewole Davies Ojo & Iyanda Sadiq (2010)  Download file here

The Effects of Climate Change on Cocoa Production and Vulnerability Assessment in Nigeria” A.S. Oyekale , M.B. Bolaji and O.W. Olowa   (2009) Download the file here

Important adaptation options in the agricultural sector include: Crop diversification, mixed cropping, livestock farming system, using different crop varieties, changing planting and harvesting dates, mixing less productive, drought resistant varieties and high yield water sensitive crops (Jagtap, 1995). Agriculture adaptation involves 2 types of modifications in production systems. The first is increased diversification that involves engaging in production activities that are drought tolerant and or resistant to temperature stresses as well as activities that make efficient sue and take full advantage of prevailing water and temperature conditions, among other factors. Crop diversification can serve as insurance against rainfall variability as different crops are affected differently by climate events. The second strategy focuses on crop management practices geared towards ensuring that critical crop growth stages do not coincide with very harsh climatic condition such as mid-season droughts. Crop management practices that can be sued include modifying the length of growing period and changing planting and harvesting dates.

Cocoa and climate change: can the lame help the blind?Kees Stigter (2008) Download the file here

Intercropping trees, including fruit trees and timber species, in line with thinning of aging cocoa trees, is a good policy. One step further and the shade trees are grown from newly available land, after which the cocoa is introduced. These are examples of overhauling or renewing existing systems that would benefit carbon sequestration. Cocoa would be related to reforestation now instead of the deforestation of the past.

Drivers and barriers to sustainable purchasing practices in the cocoa sector” David Phillips and Anne Tallontire (2007) Download the file here

Ecological, economic and social perspectives on cocoa production worldwide” Margaret Franzen and Monique Borgerhoff Mulder (2007) Download the files here (1, 2)

“A review on cocoa agroforestry as a means for biodiversity conservation” Richard Asare (2006) Download the file here

Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes” (2004) Download the file here

Public/private partnerships in agroforestry: the example of working together to improve cocoa sustainability” H-Y Shapiro, E.M. Rosenquist  (2004) Download the file here

Note : Some of the above articles, as available, have been flagged with the term ‘climate’ and are posted to the WCF virtual library — Editor

BIOVERSITY:

From Brigitte Laliberté, Scientific Advisor, CacaoNet Coordination, Bioversity International, Email: brig.lalib@gmail.com, www.cacaonet.org.

The Global Cacao Genetic Resources Network, CacaoNet, is pleased to announce the publication of the Global Strategy for the Conservation and Use of Cacao Genetic Resources.  You can access the full document available as a PDF on the CacaoNet website at: www.cacaonet.org 

The PDF file is 15 Mb so downloading may take a few seconds.  If you would like to have a copy onto a CD, please get in touch with me.  A summary version in the form of a brochure is also available for download and its content is in the Section on the Global Strategy on the CacaoNet website.  We will also print the brochure so you can request a copy by sending me an email.

This Global Strategy is the product of expert opinion and detailed discussions among many diverse stakeholders in conservation and use of cacao genetic resources and breeding. CacaoNet encourages international, regional and national public research organisations, development agencies, NGOs and the private sector to use the priorities set out herein to guide their activities and investment decisions. 

CacaoNet together with its partners is coordinating the implementation of the 8 strategic components:

1.      Securing existing ex situ cacao genetic resources, particularly those held in the public domain, and their distribution

2.      Developing a Global Strategic Cacao Collection (GSCC)

3.      Genetic diversity gap filling in ex situ collections and collecting

4.      Ensuring the in situ and on-farm conservation of important genetic diversity

5.      Strengthening the distribution mechanism and safe movement of germplasm

6.      Strengthening the use of the cacao genetic resources by providing support to breeders and key users through improved characterization, evaluation within collections and supporting population enhancement programmes

7.      Improving documentation and sharing of information on germplasm

8.      Strengthening the networking and partnerships for global collaboration

We will hold a Global Strategy launch event during the COPAL conference, 15-20 October, Yaoundé, Cameroon (www.copal-cpa.org) on the Thursday 18 October following the poster session.  Please join us if you are planning to be at COPAL!  We will have a CacaoNet meeting on the Wednesday 17 October to discuss the next steps in implementation.  We will also be participating in the World Cocoa Conference, 19-23 November 2012, Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire (http://worldcocoa.agraevents.com/). 

RECENT CACAO/COCOA PUBLICATIONS IN WCF VIRTUAL LIBRARY:

**Adjaloo, M.K., Oduro, W. Banful, B.K.  Floral Phenology of Upper Amazon Cocoa Trees: Implications for Reproduction and Productivity of Cocoa. ISRN Agronomy, vol. 2012, Article ID 461674, 8 pages, doi:10.5402/2012/461674. (Genomics&PhysiologyAgronomics1MB)

**Afoakwa, E.O., Quao, J., Takrama, F.S., Budu, A.S., Saalia, F.K.  Changes in total polyphenols, o-diphenols and anthocyanin concentrations during fermentation of pulp pre-conditioned cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans. International Food Research Journal, 19 (3), pp. 1071-1077, 2012. (PostharvestFermentation492KB)

**Agbor, R.B, Ekpol, I.A., Udofia, U.U., Okpakol, E.C., Ekanem, E.B.  Potentials of cocoa pod husk and plantain peels in the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon content of crude oil polluted soil.  Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., 2012, 4 (3):1372-1375. (Environment&SustainabilityOilspill302KB)

**Aidoo, E.; Addai, F.K.; Ahenkorah, J.; Hottor, B.; Bugyei, K.A.; Gyan, B.A.  Natural cocoa ingestion reduced liver damage in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK65).  Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine, vol. 2012, p, 107-116, 2012. (HumanNutritionLiver1.91MB)

**Assiri, A.A., Kacou, E.A., Assi, F.A., Ekra, K.S. Dji, K.F., Couloud, J.Y., Yapo, A.R. Rentabilité économique des techniques de réhabilitation et de replantation des vieux vergers de cacaoyers (Theobroma cacao L.) en Côte d’Ivoire. [Profitability of Rehabilitating and Replanting Old Cocoa Orchards in Côte d’Ivoire].  Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 2012. Vol. 14, Issue 2: 1939-1951. (EconomicsProfitibility307KB)

**Bertolde, F.Z., Almeida, A.-A.F., Pirovani, C.P., Gomes, F.P., Ahnert, D., Baligar, V.C., Valle, R.R.   Physiological and biochemical responses of Theobroma cacao L. genotypes to flooding. Photosynthetica, pp. 1-11, 2012. [Article in Press]. (Genomics&PhysiologyFlooding KB)

**Brownson, S., Vincent, I-M., Etim, D.  Determinants of Cash Crop Output Volatility in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 4, p. 174-184, 2012. (SocioEconomic Cashcrop216KB)

 **Clough, Y. A generalized approach to modeling and estimating indirect effects in ecology. Ecology, vol. 93(8), pp. 1809-1815, 2012. (Environment&Sustainability Ecology710KB)

**Djocgoue, P.F., Mbouobda, H.D., Boudejeko, P.O., Omokolo, D.N.  Amino acids, carbohydrates and heritability of resistance in the Theobroma cacao/Phythophthora megakarya interaction.  Phytopathol. Mediterr. 50, 370−383, 2011. (Diseases&PestsResistance798KB)

**EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal, vol.10, p. 1-21, 2012. (HumanNutritionFlavanolReview 310KB)

 **Faturoti B. O., Madukwe M. C., Ogunedojutimi O., Anyanwu L.   Socioeconomic impact of SARO agro allied organic cocoa programme on beneficiary cocoa farmers in Nigeria.  Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development vol. 4(16), p. 435-445, 2012. (SocioEconomicOrganic255KB)

 **Francis, A.W., Kairo, M.T.K., Roda, A.L., Liburd, O.E., Polar, P. The passionvine mealybug, Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae), and its natural enemies in the cocoa agroecosystem in Trinidad. Biological Control, vol. 60, p. 290-296. (Diseases&PestsBiocontrol610KB)

 **Haynes, J., Cuggage, F., Mercer, E., Sills, E.  The Search for Value and Meaning in the Cocoa Supply Chain in Costa Rica. Sustainability, vol. 4, p. 1466-1487, 2012. (Socio-EconomicSustainable592KB)

**Kamdem, C.B. The Determinants of Marketing Efficiency of Cocoa Farmer Organization in Cameroon. International Business Research vol. 5(9), p. 158-170, 2012. (SocioEconomicMarketing104KB)

** Khuda, S., Slate, A., Pereira, M., Al-Taher, F., Jackson, L., Diaz-Amigo, C., Bigley, E.C. 3rd, Whitaker, T., Williams, K.  Effect of processing on recovery and variability associated with immunochemical analytical methods for multiple allergens in a single matrix: dark chocolate. J Agric Food Chem. 2012 May 2;60(17):4204-11. Epub 2012 Apr 18. (PostharvestProcessing798KB)

 **Kumari, R.,  Chaturvedi, P., Ansari, N.G., Murthy, R.C., Patel, D.K. Optimization and Validation of an Extraction Method for the Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons in Chocolate Candies. Journal of Food Science, vol. 71, Nr. 1, 2012. (HumanNutritionPolyphenol727KB)

 **Lima, L.J.R., van der Velpen, V., Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.,  Kamphuis, H.J., Zwietering, M.H., Nouta, M.J.R.  Microbiota Dynamics and Diversity at Different Stages of Industrial Processing of Cocoa Beans into Cocoa Powder. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., vol. 78(8):2904, 2012. DOI:10.1128/AEM.07691-11. (PostharvestProcessing925KB)

 **Menezes, S.P., Dos Santos, J.L., Cardoso, T.H., Pirovani, C.P., Micheli, F., Noronha, F.S., Alves, A.C., Faria, A.M., da Silva Gesteira, A.  Evaluation of the allergenicity potential of TcPR-10 protein from Theobroma cacao. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e37969. Epub 2012 Jun 29. (PostharvestQuality4.2MB)

**Mfegue, C.V., Herail, C., Adreit, H., Mbenoun, M., Techou, Z., Ten Hoopen, M., Tharreau, D., Ducamp, M.  Microsatellite markers for population studies of Phytophthora megakarya (Pythiaceae), a cacao pathogen in Africa. American Journal of Botany, August 29, 2012. [Epub ahead of print]. (Diseases&PestsPhytophthora463KB)

**Mommer, Liesje. The water relations in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.):Modelling root growth and evapotranspiration. [Thesis with extensive information on fertilizer and water relations on cacao in West Africa]. Wageningen Agricultural University, Department of Theoretical Production Ecology, The Netherlands. (Genomics&PhysiologyWater Relations7.62MB)

**Musa, N.A. Drying characterlistics of cocoa beans using an artificial dryer. Research Journal Applied Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 194-197, 2012. (PostharvestDrying339KB)

**Nyadanu, D.; Akromah, R.; Adomako, B.; Kwoseh, C.; Lowor, S.T.; Dzahini-Obiatey, H.; Akrofi, A.Y.; Ansah, F.O.; Assuah, M.K. Histological mechanisms of resistance to black pod disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Journal Plant Sciences, vol.7, pp.39-54, 2012. (Diseases&PestsResistanceBreeding910KB)

**Nsor-Atindana, J., Zhong, F., Mothibe, K.J.  In vitro hypoglycemic and cholesterol lowering effects of dietary fiber prepared from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) shells. Food Funct. 2012 Jun 27. [Epub ahead of print]. (HumanNutritionPolyphenol41KB)

**Ogah, C. O.,  T.obebe, O. Caffeine Content of Cocoa and Coffee Beverages in Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Innovative Research in Engineering and Sciences, vol. 3, p. 404-411, 2012. (PostharvestQuality172KB)

**Ojo, A.D., Sadiq, I.  Effect of climate change on cocoa yield: a case of Cocoa Research Institute (CRIN) farm, Oluyole Local Government Ibadanoyo State.  Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, vol. 12, No.1, 2010. (Environment&SustainabilityClimate91.5KB)

**Osakabe, N. Polyphenols in Theobroma Cacao ameliorate microcirculation: In vivo intravital microscopic observation in rats. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 20 (SUPPL.1), pp. 288-291, 2012. (HumanNutritionPolyphenol451KB)

**Oyewole, O.S.; Ajayi, I.O.; Rotimi, R.I. Growth of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) seedlings on old cocoa soils amended with organic and inorganic fertilizers. African Journal Agricultural Research vol. 7, pp.3604-3608, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyFertilizer166KB)

**Oyekale, A.S., Bolaji, M.B., Olowa, O.W.  The effects of climate change on cocoa production and vulnerability assessment in Nigeria. Agricultural Journal, vol. 4(2), p.  77-85, 2009. (Environment&SustainabilityClimate666KB)

**Oyekale, A.S.; Oladele, O.I. Determinants of climate change adaptation among cocoa farmers in southwest Nigeria. ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 2, p. 154-168, 2012. (Environment&sustainabilityClimate194KB)

**Oyinloye, R.O., Oloukoi, J. Spatio-Temporal Assessment and Mapping of the Landuse Landcover Dynamics in The Central Forest Belt of Southwestern NigeriaResearch Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, vol. 4, p. 720-730, 2012. (Environment&SustainabilityConservation2.84MB)

**Rizali, A., Clough, Y., Buchori, D., Hosang, M.L., Bos, M.M., Tscharntke, T. Long-term change of ant community structure in cacao agroforestry landscapes in Indonesia. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 2012. Article in Press. (Environment& SustainabilityAgroforestry473KB)

 **Santos, B.F., Aguiar, A.P., Tedesco, A.M.  Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) from cacao agroforestry systems in northeastern Brazil, with two new species of Trigonalys Westwood. Journal Hymenoptera Research, 25 (1), pp. 19-33, 2012. (Environment& SustainabilityBiodiversity5.2MB)

 **Santos, E.S.L., Cerqueira-Silva, C.B.M., Mori, G.M., Ahnert, D., Corrêa, R.X., Souza, A.P. New polymorphic microsatellite loci for Theobroma cacao: Isolation and characterization of microsatellites from enriched genomic libraries. Biologia Plantarum, 56 (4), pp. 789-792, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyGenetics244KB)

 **Santos, R.M.F., Clement, D., Lemos, L.S.L., Legravre, T., Lanaud, C., Schnell, R.J. , Pires, J.L., Lopes, U.V., Micheli, F., Gramacho, K.P.  Identification, characterization and mapping of EST-derived SSRs from the cacao-Ceratocystis cacaofunesta interaction. Tree Genetics and Genomes, pp. 1-11, 2012. [Article in Press] (Diseases&PestsBreeding533KB)

 **Schmarr, H.-G., Engel, K.-H. Analysis and stereodifferentiation of linalool in Theobroma cacao and cocoa products using enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography. European Food Research and Technology, pp. 1-8, 2012. Article in Press. (PostharvestAroma312KB)

 **Serra, A., Macià, A., Rubió, L., Anglès, N., Ortega, N., Morelló, J.R., Romero, M.P., Motilva, M.J.  Distribution of procyanidins and their metabolites in rat plasma and tissues in relation to ingestion of procyanidin-enriched or procyanidin-rich cocoa creams. Eur. J. Nutr. 2012 Jul 11. [Epub ahead of print]. (HumanNutritionProcyanadin739KB)

 **Silva, V.S.D.; Martins Pinto, L.R.; de Oliveira, B.F.; Damaceno, V.O.; Pires, J.L.; dos Santos Dias, C.T. Resistance of progenies of cacao to Ceratocystis wilt. Tropical plant pathology, vol..37, pp.191-195, 2012. (Diseases&PestsResistanceBreeding725KB)

**Simadibrata, M.  Anti-free Radical Effects of Dark Chocolate in Radical Damage and Constipation. Acta Med. Indones-Indones J. Intern. Med., vol 43, Editorial, p. 217, 2011. (HumanNutritionAntioxidant608KB)

**Smullen, J., Finney, M., Storey, D.M., Foster, H.A. Prevention of artificial dental plaque formation in vitro by plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol. 2012 Jul 2. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2012.05380.x. [Epub ahead of print] (HumanNutritionDentalPlaque414KB)

 **Stote, K.S., Clevidence, B.A., Novotny, J.A., Henderson, T., Radecki, S.V., Baer, D.J.  Effect of cocoa and green tea on biomarkers of glucose regulation, oxidative stress, inflammation and hemostasis in obese adults at risk for insulin resistance. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Article in Press, 2012. (HumanNutritionInflammation 316KB)

 **Sudarma, V., Sukmaniah, S., Siregar, P.  Effect of Dark Chocolate on Nitric Oxide Serum Levels and Blood Pressure in Prehypertension Subjects.  Acta Med. Indones-Indones J. Intern. Med., vol 43, p. 224-228, 2011. (HumanNutrition805KB)

**Syamsiro, M. Saptoadi, H., Tambunan, B.H. Experimental Investigation on Combustion of Bio-Pellets from Indonesian Cocoa Pod Husk. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 4: 712-719, 2011. (PostharvestHuskBiopellets540KB)

**Takrama, J., Dadzie, A.M., Opoku, F.K., Padi, F.K., Adomako, B., Asu-Ampomah, Y. Livingstone, D.S., Motamayor, J.C., Schnell, R.J., Kuhn, R.J. Applying SNP marker technology in the cacao breeding programme in Ghana. African Crop Science Journal, vol. 20, pp. 67-75, 2012. (Genomics&PhysiologyGenetics150KB)

**Thevenin, J.-M., Rossi, V., Ducamp, M., Doare, F., Condina, V., Lachenaud, P. Numerous clones resistant to Phytophthora palmivora in the “Guiana” genetic group of Theobroma cacao L.  PLoS ONE, 7 (7), 2012. (Diseases&PestsResistanceBreeding280KB)

**Yamashita, Y., Okabe, M., Natsume, M., Ashida, H. Comparison of anti-hyperglycemic activities between low- and high-degree of polymerization procyanidin fractions from cacao liquor extract. (2012) Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 20 (SUPPL.1), pp. 283-287, 2012. (HumanNutritionProcyanidin569KB)

**Yang, J.Y., Motilal, L.A., Dempewolf, H., Maharaj, K., Cronk, Q.C.B. Chloroplast Microsatellite Primers for Cacao (Theobroma cacao) and other Malvaceae. (2011) American Journal of Botany, 98 (12), pp. e372-e374. (Genomics&PhysiologyChloroplast465KB)

**Zaia, F.C., Gama-Rodrigues, A.C., Gama-Rodrigues, E.F., Moço, M.K.S., Fontes, A.G., Machado, R.C.R., Baligar, V.C. Carbon, nitrogen, organic phosphorus, microbial biomass and N mineralization in soils under cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil. Agroforestry Systems, p. 1-16, 2012. Article in Press. (Environment&SustainabilityAgroforestry294KB)

**Complete articles are available on the WCF website in the Research Library. These articles are accessible to the cacao research community for research purposes only. This bibliography was developed with assistance from the National Agricultural Library, Agriculture Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.

In developing countries access to expanded free literature may be explored by going to this link.

Contributions to the WCF Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or wcf@worldcocoa.org. News items will be included in the next update.

Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to wcf@worldcocoa.org.

These categorized articles are available at the indicated affiliation address:

Biology:

Andrade, D.V.G.D., Gões-Neto, A., Junior, M.C. , Taranto, A.G. Comparative modeling and QM/MM studies of cysteine protease mutant of Theobroma cacao. (2012) International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, 112 (19), pp. 3164-3168. AFFILIATION: (PPGBiotec UEFS/CPqGM/FIOCRUZ), Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Av. Transnordestina S/N, Bairro Novo Horizonte, 44036-900, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil; KEYWORDS: comparative modeling;  in silico mutagenesis;  metal-protein complex;  QM/MM;  structure-function; Biology

Ford, C.S., Wilkinson, M.J. Confocal observations of late-acting self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L. (2012) Sexual Plant Reproduction, 25 (3), pp. 169-183.

AFFILIATION: School of Agriculture Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064, Australia

KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Confocal microscopy;  Gametic non-fusion;  Late-acting SI;  Self-incompatibility;  Theobroma cacao; Biology

Yang, J.Y., Motilal, L.A., Dempewolf, H., Maharaj, K., Cronk, Q.C.B. Chloroplast Microsatellite Primers for Cacao (Theobroma cacao) and other Malvaceae. (2011) American Journal of Botany, 98 (12), pp. e372-e374. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada; Cocoa Research Unit, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. KEYWORDS: Chloroplast haplotype;  Chocolate;  Malvaceae;  Microsatellites;  Theobroma cacao;  Trinitario; Biology

Genetic:

Pinheiro, T.T., Litholdo Jr., C.G., Sereno, M.L., Leal Jr., G.A., Albuquerque, P.S., Figueira, A.  Establishing references for gene expression analyses by RT-qPCR in Theobroma cacao tissues.(2011) Genetics and molecular research : GMR, 10 (4), pp. 3291-3305. AFFILIATION: Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. KEYWORD: Genetic

Disease/Pest:

Paulillo, L.C.M.S., Magno Sebbenn, A., de Carvalho Derbyshire, M.T.V., Góes-Neto, A., de Paula Brotto, M.A., Figueira, A. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo effects of semipurified proteinase inhibitors from theobroma seeds on midgut protease activity of lepidopteran pest insects.  (2012) Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências Laboratório de Biotecnologia e Microbiologia Salvador, Bahia Brazil; KEYWORDS: Lepidoptera;  Pest insects;  Theobroma trypsin inhibitor;  Trypsin;  Trypsin activity. KEYWORD: Disease/Pest

Pinto, D.G., Aguilar, M.A.G., Souza, C.A.S., Silva, D.M., Siqueira, P.R., Cao, J.R., Zanetti, L.V. Physiological changes after application of silicon on cocoa: And its influence on aphid preference [Alterações fisiológicas após aplicação de silício em cacau e sua influência na preferência por pulgões]. (2012) Revista Ceres, 59 (3), pp. 360-367. AFFILIATION: Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Avenida Fernando Ferrari, 514, 29075-910, Goiabeiras, Vitoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil; Keyword: disease/pest

Yedea , Babin, R. , Djieto-Lordon, C., Cilas, C., Dibog, L., Mahob, R., Bilong Bilong, C. True bug (heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity. (2012) Journal of Economic Entomology, 105 (4), pp. 1285-1292. AFFILIATION: University of Yaoundi, Faculty of Science, P.O. box, 812 Yaoundi, Cameroon; KEYWORDS: cherelle wilt;  cocoa mirids;  cocoa yield;  Sahlbergella singularis;  Theobroma cacao; disease/pest

Environment:

Kone, M., Konate, S., Yeo, K., Kouassi, P.K., Linsenmair, K.E. Changes in ant communities along an age gradient of cocoa cultivation in the Oumé region, central Côte d’Ivoire. (2012) Entomological Science, 15 (3), pp. 324-339. AFFILIATION: Unité de Formation et de Recherches en Biosciences, Université de Cocody, Cote d’Ivoire. KEYWORDS:  Conservation;  Forest;  Management system;  Species composition; Environment

Moreira, A., Moraes, L.A.C., Fageria, N.K. Nutritional limitations in multi-strata agroforestry system with native Amazonian plants. (2012) Journal of Plant Nutrition, 35 (12), pp. 1791-1805.c AFFILIATION: Soybean Center of EMBRAPA, Londrina, Brazil; National Rice and Bean Research Center of EMBRAPA, Santo Antônio de Goiás, Brazil. KEYWORDS: Amazon;  foliar diagnosis; soil fertility; Theobroma cacao; Theobroma grandiflorum;  Environment

Owusu, V., Fosu, K.Y., Burger, K. Intersectoral labor mobility and deforestation in Ghana.  (2012) Environment and Development Economics, pp. 1-22. Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Department of Agricultural Economics, Agribusiness and Extension, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ashanti Region, Ghana. Email: vowusu.agric@knust.edu.gh; Keyword: Environment

Waldron, A., Justicia, R., Smith, L., Sanchez, M.Conservation through Chocolate: A win-win for biodiversity and farmers in Ecuador’s lowland tropics. (2012) Conservation Letters, 5 (3), pp. 213-221. AFFILIATION:  Fundacion Maquipucuna, Baquerizo Moreno E9-153, Quito, Ecuador. Keywords: Agroforestry; Cacao; Certification; Chocó; Cocoa; Conservation outside protected areas; Trade-offs; Wildlife-friendly farming; Environment

Rizali, A., Clough, Y., Buchori, D., Hosang, M.L., Bos, M.M., Tscharntke, T.  Long-term change of ant community structure in cacao agroforestry landscapes in Indonesia. (2012) Insect Conservation and Diversity, . Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Agroecology Department of Crop Science University of Göttingen Göttingen Germany; KEYWORDS: Agricultural intensification;  Biodiversity;  Land-use change;  Pesticide;  Philidris cordata;  Sulawesi; Environment

Postharvest:

Lechtenberg, M., Henschel, K., Liefländer-Wulf, U., Quandt, B., Hensel, A. Fast determination of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids (NPA) in cocoa samples from different origins by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. (2012) Food Chemistry, 135 (3), pp. 1676-1684. AFFILIATION: Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytochemistry (IPBP), University of Münster, Hittorfstraße 56, 48149 Münster, Germany. KEYWORDS: 2-O-Caffeoyltartaric acid;  Capillary electrophoresis;  CE;  Clovamide;  Cocoa;  N-Phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acids;  Theobroma cacao L;  UPLC; Postharvest

Norton, J.E., Fryer, P.J.  Investigation of changes in formulation and processing parameters on the physical properties of cocoa butter emulsions. (2012) Journal of Food Engineering, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. KEYWORDS: Cocoa butter;  Emulsion; Postharvest

Pinheiro, A.A., Veloso, C.M., Rocha Neto, A.L., Silva, R.R., da Silva, F.F., Mendes, F.B.L., de Santana Júnior, H.A., Azevedo, S.T., de Carvalho, G.G.P. Ingestive behavior of dairy heifers fed cocoa (“Theobroma cacao”) meal levels in the diet [Comportamento ingestivo de novilhas leiteiras alimentadas com níveis de farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao) na dieta]. (2012) Revista Brasileira de Saude e Producao Animal, 13 (1), pp. 224-236. AFFILIATION: Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Departamento de Zootecnia, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Bovine;  Ethology;  Food;  Rumination;  Waste; Postharvest

Puerari, C., Magalhães, K.T., Schwan, R.F. New cocoa pulp-based kefir beverages: Microbiological, chemical composition and sensory analysis. (2012) Food Research International, 48 (2), pp. 634-640. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Food Sciences Department, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-000 Lavras, MG, Brazil; KEYWORDS: Fruit;  Microbial community;  Microbial metabolites;  Non-alcoholic and alcoholic kefir;  Postharvest

Umeh, A.S., Anozie, G.O., Ochuogu, S. Acceptability and sensory evaluation of soup made from tender cocoa pods (Theobroma cacao). (2011) Journal of Home Economics Research, 15, pp. 180-188. AFFILIATION: Home Econs/HMT Department, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. KEYWORDS: Okra;  Soup;  Tender Cocoa Pods; Postharvest

Yusriah, L., Sapuan, S.M., Zainudin, E.S., Mariatti, M. Underutilized malaysian agro-wastes fiber as reinforcement in polymer composites: Potential and challenges. (2012) Journal of Polymer Materials, 29 (2), pp. 201-216. AFFILIATION: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; KEYWORDS: Agricultural wastes;  Natural fiber;  Polymer composites; Postharvest

Economics:

Benkeblia, N. Role of horticulture in agriculture development and food security in Jamaica. (2011) Acta Horticulturae, 921, pp. 43-48. AFFILIATIONS: Department of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica. KEYWORDS: Development;  Food;  Horticulture;  Jamaica;  Security; Economics

Gardini, M. Land transactions and chieftaincies in southwestern Togo [Landtransaktionen und chefferie im südwesten Togos]. (2012) Africa Spectrum, 47 (1), pp. 51-72. AFFILIATIONS: University of Milano Bicocca, Italy. KEYWORDS: Land law;  Land tenure;  Land use;  Economics

Robins, J.E. Slave cocoa and red rubber: E. D. Morel and the problem of ethical consumption. (2012) Comparative Studies in Society and History, 54 (3), pp. 592-611. AFFILIATIONS: Morgan State University, United States. KEYWORD: Social

Health:

Actis-Goretta, L., Lévèques, A., Giuffrida, F., Romanov-Michailidis, F., Viton, F., Barron, D., Duenas-Paton, M. , Gonzalez-Manzano, S. , Santos-Buelga, C., Williamson, G., Dionisi, F.  Elucidation of (-)-epicatechin metabolites after ingestion of chocolate by healthy humans. (2012) Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 53 (4), pp. 787-795. Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland; KEYWORDS: (-)-Epicatechin;  Chocolate;  Cocoa;  Free radicals;  Humans; Health

Barrios-Ramos, J.P., Garduño-Siciliano, L., Loredo, M., Chamorro-Cevallos, G., Jaramillo-Flores, M.E. The effect of cocoa, soy, oats and fish oil on metabolic syndrome in rats. (2012) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92 (11), pp. 2349-2357. AFFILIATIONS: Graduados e Investigación en Alimentos, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n Col. Casco de Santo Tomás, CP 11340 México, DF, Mexico; KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  Functional foods;  Hepatic damage;  Metabolic syndrome;  Steatosis; health

Chan, E.K, Quach, J., Mensah, F.K., Sung, V., Cheung, M., Wake, M.  Dark chocolate for children’s blood pressure: Randomised trial. (2012) Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97 (7), pp. 637-640. AFFILIATION: Centre for Community Child Health, Royal Children’s Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia. KEYWORD: Health

Desideri, G., Kwik-Uribe, C., Grassi, D., Necozione, S.a , Ghiadoni, L., Mastroiacovo, D., Raffaele, A., Ferri, L., Bocale, R., Lechiara, M.C., Marini, C., Ferri, C.  Benefits in cognitive function, blood pressure, and insulin resistance through cocoa flavanol consumption in elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment: The cocoa, cognition, and aging (CoCoA) study. (2012) Hypertension, 60 (3), pp. 794-801. AFFILIATION: Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, University of l’Aquila, Viale S Salvatore, Delta 6 Medicina, 67100 Coppito, L’Aquila, Italy; KEYWORDS: blood pressure;  cocoa flavanols;  cognitive function;  insulin;  mild cognitive impairment; health

De Gottardi, A., Berzigotti, A., Seijo, S. , D’Amico, M., Thormann, W., Abraldes, J.G., García-Pagán, J.C., Bosch, J. Postprandial effects of dark chocolate on portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: Results of a phase 2, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. (2012) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96 (3), pp. 584-590. AFFILIATION: Hepatic Hemodynamic Laboratory, Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, c/Villarroel 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORD: health

Galleano, M., Calabro, V., Prince, P.D., Litterio, M.C., Piotrkowski, B., Vazquez-Prieto, M.A., Miatello, R.M., Oteiza, P.I., Fraga, C.G.  Flavonoids and metabolic syndrome. (2012) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1259 (1), pp. 87-94. AFFILIATION: Physical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Institute of Molecular Biochemistry and Medicine (IBIMOL)-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. KEYWORDS: Diabetes;  Hypertension;  Inflammation;  Lipids;  Obesity;  Polyphenols; health

Grassi, D., Desideri, G., Necozione, S., Ruggieri, F., Blumberg, J.B., Stornello, M., Ferri, C.  Protective effects of flavanol-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function and wave reflection during acute hyperglycemia. (2012) Hypertension, 60 (3), pp. 827-832. AFFILIATION: Department of Internal Medicine and Public Health, University of l’Aquila, Viale S Salvatore, Delta 6 Medicina, 67100 Coppito, L’Aquila, Italy;

KEYWORDS: cocoa;  endothelial function;  flavonoids;  nitric oxide;  oxidative stress;  wave reflections; health

Hassellund, S.S., Flaa, A., Sandvik, L., Kjeldsen, S.E., Rostrup, M. Effects of anthocyanins on blood pressure and stress reactivity: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study. (2012) Journal of Human Hypertension, 26 (6), pp. 396-404. AFFILIATIONS: Section of Cardiovascular and Renal Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; KEYWORDS: anthocyanins;  blood pressure;  cardiovascular diseases;  flavonoids;  physiological stress reactivity;  Health

Massot-Cladera, M., Pérez-Berezo, T.a, Franch, A., Castell, M., Pérez-Cano, F.J.

Cocoa modulatory effect on rat faecal microbiota and colonic crosstalk. (2012) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, . Article in Press. AFFILIATIONS: Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORDS: Cocoa;  FISH;  IgA;  Intestinal immune system;  Microbiota;  Toll-like receptors; Health

Oleaga, C. , García, M., Solé, A., Ciudad, C.J., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., Noe, V. CYP1A1 is overexpressed upon incubation of breast cancer cells with a polyphenolic cocoa extract. (2012) European Journal of Nutrition, 51 (4), pp. 465-476. AFFILIATION: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain:KEYWORDS: AhR;  Breast cancer;  CYP1A1;  ERα;  Tamoxifen; Health

Ramirez-Sanchez, I., Aguilar, H. , Ceballos, G., Villarreal, F. (-)-Epicatechin-induced calcium independent eNOS activation: roles of HSP90 and AKT.  (2012) Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, pp. 1-10. Article in Press. AFFILIATION: Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, United States; KEYWORDS: Cocoa flavanols;  Endothelial cells;  eNOS;  Epicatechin; Health

Ramirez-Sanchez, I., Nogueira, L., Moreno, A., Murphy, A., Taub, P.R., Perkins, G., Ceballos, G., Hogan, M., Malek, H., Villarreal, F. Stimulatory effects of the flavanol (-)-epicatechin on cardiac angiogenesis: Additive effects with exercise. (2012) Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, . Article in Press. AFFILIATION: University of California, San Diego, Department of Pharmacology *Medicine &National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research #La Jolla, CA. KEYWORD: Health

Ramos-Romero, S., Pérez-Cano, F.J., Ramiro-Puig, E., Franch, A., Castell, M. Cocoa intake attenuates oxidative stress associated with rat adjuvant arthritis. (2012) Pharmacological Research, 66 (3), pp. 207-212. AFFILIATIONS: Department de Fisiologia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Joan XXIII s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORDS: Adjuvant arthritis;  Cocoa;  Oxidative stress; Health

Sánchez-González, C., Nigussie, W., Estruch, R., Lamuela-Raventós, R.M., Izquierdo-Pulido, M., De Lamo-Castellví, S.  Attenuated total reflection infrared microspectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis: A novel tool to study the presence of cocoa polyphenol metabolites in urine samples.AFFILIATIONS: Department of Nutrition and Food Science- XaRTA- INSA, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; KEYWORD: Health

Sarriá, B., Mateos, R., Sierra-Cinos, J.L., Goya, L., García-Diz, L., Bravo, L. Hypotensive, hypoglycaemic and antioxidant effects of consuming a cocoa product in moderately hypercholesterolemic humans. (2012) Food and Function, 3 (8), pp. 867-874. AFFILIATION: Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Food Science, Technology and Nutrition Institute (ICTAN), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain; KEYWORD: Health

Siddique, H.R., Liao, D.J., Mishra, S.K., Schuster, T., Wang, L., Matter, B., Campbell, P.M., Villalta, P., Nanda, S., Deng, Y., Saleem, M. Epicatechin-rich cocoa polyphenol inhibits Kras-activated pancreatic ductal carcinoma cell growth in vitro and in a mouse model. (2012) International Journal of Cancer, 131 (7), pp. 1720-1731. AFFILIATION: Department of Molecular Chemoprevention and Therapeutics, Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, Austin, MN 55912, US. KEYWORDS: cocoa polyphenol;  epicatechin;  Kras;  pancreatic cancer;  preneoplastic; Health

Schlienger, J.L. Chocolate A medical and tasty history [Petite histoire médicale et savoureuse du chocolat]. (2012) Medecine des Maladies Metaboliques, 6 (3), pp. 252-255. AFFILIATION: Faculté de Médecine de Strasbourg, 8, rue Véronèse, 67200 Strasbourg, France. KEYWORDS: cardiovascular prevention;  Chocolate;  cocoa; Health

Song, F., Qureshi, A.A., Han, J.  Increased caffeine intake is associated with reduced risk of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. (2012) Cancer Research, 72 (13), pp. 3282-3289. AFFILIATION: Department of Dermatology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; KEYWORD: Chocolate; Health

Sovová, E., Sovová, M., Sova, M., Pastucha, D.  Does chocolate eating decrease risk of cardiovascular diseases? [Snižuje konzumace čokolády kardiovaskulá rní riziko?] (2012) Prakticky Lekar, 92 (5), pp. 257-259. AFFILIATION: Lékařská Fakulta UP v Olomouci A Fakultní Nemocnice Olomouc, Klinika Telovychovneho Lekarstvi A Kardiovaskularni Rehabilitace, Húskova 6, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic; KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular risk;  Chocolate;  CRP;  Flavanols; Health

Sudano, I., Flammer, A.J., Roas, S., Enseleit, F., Ruschitzka, F., Corti, R., Noll, G. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function. (2012) Current Hypertension Reports, 14 (4), pp. 279-284. AFFILIATION: Cardiovascular Center Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091, Zurich, Switzerland; KEYWORDS: Antioxidants;  Blood pressure;  Cocoa;  Coronary heart disease;  Endothelial function;  Flavonols;  Nitric oxide;  NO;  Polyphenols;  Stroke;  Vascular compliance; Health

Tokede, O.A., Ellison, C.R., Pankow, J.S., North, K.E. , Hunt, S.C. , Kraja, A.T. , Arnett, D.K., Djoussé, L. Chocolate consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the NHLBI Family Heart Study. (2012) e-SPEN Journal, 7 (4), pp. e139-e143. AFFILIATION: Division of Aging, OBC, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 3rd floor, 1620 Tremont St., Boston, MA 02120-1613, US; KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular disease risk; Chocolate; Health Contributions to the WCF Research Update can be sent to Robert Lumsden or wcf@worldcocoa.org. News items will be included in the next  update.  Anyone interested in subscribing or unsubscribing to the monthly WCF Research Update, as well as the World Cocoa Foundation Newsletter send complete name, company/institution, mailing address and e-mail address to wcf@worldcocoa.org.

Prepared by Robert D. Lumsden, Plant Pathologist and WCF Scientific Advisor –October 1, 2012.